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The wind is the result of the movement of air
masses in the atmosphere that is caused mainly by the solar radiation, which is
absorbed and reflected in a different way by the different layers of the
atmosphere and by the variety of types of surfaces existing on earth. In this
way, the atmosphere warms unevenly, creating the circulation of the wind. The
direction of the wind is determined by topographic effects and the rotation of
the earth, a situation that makes knowledge of the dominant directions
important for the installation of wind turbines to produce electrical energy
from this resource. One of the most important global wind systems is the Trade
Winds, which have their origin in the greater warming in the equatorial region.
In general, this system is active between latitudes 30 degrees north and 30
degrees south, therefore it is of great relevance for the Central American Region.

Wind Energy nowadays is used mostly to generate
clean and safe energy, through the use of wind turbine generators (WTG), which
consist of a mechanical system of rotation, provided with blades that with the
help of a generator produce electrical energy. Wind turbines can meet small power
demands or they can also be grouped together and form a wind farms (when the
wind power generators are installed in rows) connected to the national electric
system

 

1.1.1  The Wind in Guatemala

 

The Wind in Guatemala
consists of a mixture of two wind phenomena, the trade winds and the sea breeze
winds. The pattern of trade winds move with a component of the North (NNE, NE,
NNO) during the months of October to February, due to a high pressure system
concentration that is located during this period in the central part of the
United States and its prolongation through the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan
Peninsula. These air currents enter from the territory of the Gulf of Mexico
through the department of Izabal, in the NE side of Guatemala, and are
channeled between the Sierras del Merendón and Las Minas, in this way these
winds are accelerated and achieve speeds a little higher in the east of the
country, then They pass to the central zone and go to the northwest part of the
country decreasing their speed considerably.

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