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 The State of
California

Through a
project called Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), California offers up to USD 7,000 in EV rebates for the purchase
or lease of eligible zero-emissions and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The
Center for Sustainable Energy (CSE) administers CVRP for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 70. 

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A rebate
of USD 5,000 is available for the following models of FCVs 70: Honda
Clarity Fuel Cell                   
(2017), Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell (2015 – 2017), Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell
Vehicle (2016 – 2017).

A rebate of USD 2,500 is available for the following models of BEVs 70: BLUECAR Bluecar
(2016, Fleets only), BMW i3 (2014 – 2017), BYD e6 (2012 – 2017, Fleets only),
Chevrolet Bolt EV (2017), Chevrolet Spark EV (2014 – 2016), Fiat 500e (2013 –
2017), Ford Focus Electric (2012 – 2018), Honda Clarity Electric (2017),
Hyundai Ioniq Electric (2017), Kia Soul EV (2015 – 2017), Mercedes-Benz B250e
(2014 – 2017), Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2012, 2014, 2016, 2017), Nissan LEAF (2011 – 2017),
smart (2011, 2013 – 2017), Tesla Model 3 (2017), Tesla Model S (2012 – 2017),
Tesla Model X (2016 – 2017), Volkswagen e-Golf (2015 – 2017)

A rebate of USD 1,500 is available for the
following models of PHEVs 70: Audi A3 e-tron
(2016 – 2017), BMW 530e (2018), Cadillac ELR (2014, 2016), Chevrolet Volt (2012
– 2018, ONLY Low Emissions Package), Chrysler Pacifica (2017 – 2018), Ford
C-MAX Energi (2013 – 2017), Ford Fusion Energi (2013 – 2018), Hyundai Sonata Plug-in
Hybrid (2016 – 2017), Kia Optima Plug-in Hybrid (2017), Mitsubishi Outlander
PHEV (2018), Toyota Prius Prime (2017), Volvo S90 T8 (2018), Volvo XC60 T8
(2018), Volvo XC90 T8 (2018)

The State of California supports the development of HRSs. California has co-funded 62 HRS projects as of October 2017
via a program called “AB 8” 71.  Through the AB 8 program, $20 million is
allocated annually until there are at
least 100 publicly available hydrogen-fueling stations in California 72.

EV charging stations are funded
by California through the California
Energy Commission’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology
Program (ARFVTP) 74. 38.8
percent of statewide total public charging sites and 37.9 percent of charging
outlets have been funded by ARFVTP 74.

As of April 2017, California has 29 Open-Retail HRSs and is
expected to have 37 HRSs be open by the end of 2017 73.
 Table
25
shows the number of HRSs in California through from 2013 to 2016.

Table 25. Number of HRSs in California from 2013 to
2016 73

Year

Number of HRSs

2013

9

2014

10

2015

12

2016

29

2017 (expected by the end of the
year)

37

As of June 2017, there are about 12,000 publicly
accessible charging ports at more than 3,600 charging stations in California 75.
As of April 2017, more than 1,600 FCVs had active registrations in California 73.
Table
26
shows the number of FCVS on-the-road in California through 2013-2016 73.

Table 26. Number of FCVs in California (2013-2017)

Year

Number of FCVs

2013

125

2014

152

2015

179

2016

925

2017 (as of April)

1,600

 

As of May
2017, about 300,000 ZEV and PHEVs have been sold in California 74.
Assuming the sales of BEVs and PHEVs have been zero before 2009, Table
27
shows the number of electric vehicles based on the number of new registrations
each year. The data used was from California Auto Outlooks covering the fourth quarter of 2013 76
and the first quarter of 2017 77.

Table 27. Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs in California
(2009-2017) 76, 77

Year

Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs
 

2009

772      (100% BEV, 0% PHEV)

2010

1169    (92% BEV, 8% PHEV)

2011

8153    (78%
BEV, 22% PHEV)

2012

29051  (43% BEV, 57% PHEV)

2013

71596   (48% BEV, 52% PHEV)

2014

131081 (49%
BEV, 51% PHEV)

2015

193298 (51%
BEV, 49% PHEV)

2016

268463 (52%
BEV, 48% PHEV)

2017
(first quarter)

292733 (52%
BEV, 48% PHEV)

 

Based on the projections, California expects to
have 13,400 and 37,400 FCVs on
the road in 2020 and 2023, respectively 73. Statewide Station Projections show 62
HRSs in California in 2020 73.
California targets a long-term goal of reaching 1.5 million ZEVs on roadways by
2025 74.

Analysis and discussion

Reviewing the
incentives allocated for the deployment of EVs and development of
charging/refueling infrastructure, it can be
seen that the structure of the support for vehicle purchase and
infrastructure development is different. While
in the case of purchase subsidy, the consumer stakeholder owns the vehicle and
the government provides the direct subsidy, in the case of charging
infrastructure and refueling stations, a model of public-private partnership is
followed in many countries although some countries tend so support the
development of charging/refueling infrastructure with direct subsidies to the
investor. Incentives for EVs purchase are
then direct economic incentives and incentives for charging infrastructure are
of direct collaborative and direct economic incentives. Direct incentive means
that the subsidy is transferred to the consumer
in monetary value 12 and
collaborative incentive means the government plays a collaborative and
managerial role in developing infrastructure 13.

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