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The use of mobile data in phones during class hours, as
defined by Kolb, is a large part of the literacy practices of the students
outside or inside the school. The use of this can help students to achieve
literacies and enables the students to understand, use and critically evaluate
the multimodal text of the twenty-first century (4).  Meanwhile, Brad Moon (2010) describes “the
use of mobile data in phones during class” as something that has a distraction
factor that leads to the potential for student and teacher conflicts, causing a
socioeconomic divide between students and even the possibility of using the
device or gadget to cheat on tests.

In 1857, Clark Maxwell formulated a research
about the electromagnetic radiation, in which Guglielmo Marconi used
as a basis for the invention of his radio transmission in 1901. This invention
was a great achievement; however, it was unable to achieve reasonable data
transmission rates for over a half-century. And in the early 1990s, mobile
phones have improved and 2G phones were introduced. And during this time, some
students in different schools in the world were able to take possession of
these phones and brought them to school. However, the schools were alarmed and
then strictly banned all devices, including cell phones which tended to be
associated with some bad activities at that time.

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However, in the early and mid-2000s, state lawmakers and
administrations are rethinking their positions. The
widespread use of the said device, the rising uses of internet access and
parents’ concerns about their child’s safety are encouraging new policies that
allow students to use phones (Delisio, 2002).Many school districts had
approved to allowed phones in school for education purposes, but they had to be
turn off during class hours and can be turn on if there is consent from the
teacher.

Mobile data in phones technology is continuously
evolving, seemingly at slow but sure rate of innovation and adoption. By 2010,
“4G” was introduced and has been developed with the aim of providing
transmission rates up to 20 Mbps and can truly help in education accessing the
Internet regarding to their needs. They are expected to include
high-performance streaming of multimedia content. The deployment of “4G” mobile
data will also improve the teaching strategies for teachers.

Smart phones’ mobile data and the technology they provide for
educational enhancements and improvements, especially internet accessing, will
be so obvious that school policy allowing them within classrooms and for
educational purposes will begin to be adopted throughout the country. As data
on phone technologies continue to improve, become more available, and have more
internet connections and mobile data, their use as educational tools will
continue to grow. Cell phones tucked in the book bags and pockets of
three-fourths of today’s teens, many high schools are ceding defeat in the
battle to keep hand-held technology out of class and instead are inviting
students to use their phones for learning things (Malone & Black, 2010).

According to Ritchel and Stone (2009), using mobile data on
phones during class hours, took average-level kids and made them into
honor-level kids. Most probably because they seek learnings from the internet
in their phones and became independent in doing things in regards to academic.
Jean Piaget’s “Constructivist Learning Theory” is leading the charge by
demonstrating how a traditional learning theory can impact a new innovative
technology like internet accessing by using the data in our phones. One of the
beliefs of the constructivist theorist is that people need to develop and build
understanding or knowledge from their own personal experiences and subjective perspectives
on things they have encountered in life. The students should need to have the
opportunity to experiment and reflect previous experiences to build new
understandings of the educational material. Constructivist learning theory
enables the mobile technology to focus on the abilities of the students to be
self-directed and draw conclusions (Karagiorgi, 2005).

In
Lantos’ essay, it was stated there the effective usage of the mobile technology
from small rural schools to the large metropolitan college of higher education.
Mobile technology and its capability to access internet through mobile data are
implemented and then looked at again for further implementation. The numbers of
new and current wireless internet accessing technologies like the use of data
are implemented for the direct impact of student learning is staggering.
Universities in the United States reveal that 90 percent of public universities
and 80 percent of private universities have some level of mobile wireless
technology (Swett, 2002).

Similarly,
Jean Piaget’s “Cognitivism Theory” can also be considered in educational
technology through the use of phones’ data. The fact of the matter is that the
involvement of mobile data in learning technology is forever changing and
evolving. It is very effective implementation of technological resources to facilitate
the learning process (Herring 3). Teachers approach the students by asking
questions to the students to refine the thinking. This is in order to catch
what the students already know and present some new aspects to make students
redefine something (Flippen, 2012).

The theory talks
about with the transfer of knowledge and skills beyond the initial learning
situation. By this, significance are placed upon the information presented from
multiple point of views and the use of many case studies that present diverse
example. Spiro and Jehng (1990) state that, “By cognitive flexibility, we mean the
ability to spontaneously restructure one’s knowledge, in many ways, in adaptive
response to radically changing situational demands…This is a function of both
the way knowledge is represented (e.g., along multiple rather single conceptual
dimensions) and the processes that operate on those mental representations
(e.g., processes of schema assembly rather than intact schema retrieval).”

Some great examples of Cognitivism in
educational technology can be found in online through mobile data and
reinforcement activities, such as sorting games and puzzles. These games will
then now present prior knowledge schema in a unique or different method, thus
creating weakness and a need to adapt and learn the new information in order to
continue. One example of game is the online resource, Quizlet, it creates a means of listing
pictures, vocabulary, and even numerical procedures and then taking that list
and making several ways of practicing the previously known schemata, including
the actualization of audio and video (Flippen, 2012).

Ivan Pavlov’s “Behaviorism” also plays
an important role in bringing and using technology like the data in cellphones
in classrooms. According to the Universal Journal of
Education and Research 2, external stimulation influences the leaning behavior,
rewards and punishment can change the learning performance. Researchers and
scholars approves that Behaviorism achieves promotion and implementation in
programmatic instruction, and uses for application in
computing-assisted-instruction and the development of educational technology
through the use of phones that can access to the internet through data or any
wireless connections (Ouyang and Stanley 161).

In Behaviorism, learning revolves around the science of
behavior. Theorists view the learners as tabular rasa. In that case, the
learner can be influence by his environment on which builds a reaction or
response and which turn to another reaction you make. An example for this kind
of education in technology theory is when you are answering a complicated
question in an activity in school and then noticing your classmate to use a
phone to answer the hard problems. You may start to think that you may also use
your phone to seek for an answer and then applies actions on what you think.
From that point, you put in an application to Behaviorism by doing such things
(Flippen, 2012). 

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