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Prostate cancer is relatively critical and major disease
among men especially those above 40 years old which is death-causing
disease. In 2004, approximately 230110 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer
and 29900 of them were died from this cancer in United States (Albertsen, 2005).
There are some common signs and symptoms for the patients who suffered from
prostate cancer such as frequent urination, blood in urine or semen, burning
sensation during ejaculation and urination.

In fact, numerous factors
could be led to prostate cancer initiation. For instance, gene mutation,
inflammation and abnormal increased the rate of cell proliferation
(Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) will induce the occurrence of prostate
cancer. This cancer also associated
with dysregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and other signalling pathway. When
all these pathways are not regulated or well-controlled, it leads to reduction
in apoptotic rate, malignant transformation, tumour progression and metastasis (Claudio,
2016) and this will substantially increase the risk getting prostate cancer.

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            Inflammation
and abnormal cell proliferation can cause the epithelium of normal prostate
initiate the cascading, which induce the lesions to form. This directly gives a
primary prostate cancer or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) andsimultaneously,
it stimulates an intermediate stage known as prostatic intraepithelial
neoplasia (PIN) (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017). Other
than that, there are a lot of scientific proofs indicating that the application
of molecular and pathological analysis with prostate cancer of human and animal
model depicted that infectious agents, estrogenic hormone, age, race, genetic and
environmental factors can quicken the deterioration in the prostate epithelium
and provoke inflammation which might be attributed to make prostate cancer to
reach critical level (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017).

            Lastly,
the pathways are inter-connected and regulated to have a normal prostate due to
the effect of cross-talk mechanism. Androgen receptors (AR) regulation is one
of the major pathways must be under control to avoid prostate cancer. The
overlapping between the pathways related to endocrinology and oncology is the
main concern and would be further discussed and elucidated. Those pathways
involve with the kinase and the phosphorylation actions are the core whereby
related to the development and progression of prostate cancer. Besides,
molecular changes also responsible and produce androgen-independence prostate
cancer cells (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) which promote its
progression. 

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