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Paragraph 1.1 Introduction

·         Thesis statement

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1.      Human rights offer universal protection because Human Rights are defined as: ” inalienable, self-evident , and applicable to all humans” (Fagan, 2009, P.51),  this definition  illustrates that Human Rights do offer universal protection because the rights can be applied to every individual just by virtue of them  having the ability to reason and possessing human dignity. “How is it possible for the post-colonial world to construct a new international law that is liberated from these colonial origins?

·         Brief summary your (four) topic sentences

1.      In context of Human Rights, “Universal protection” can be define as a form of entitled safety given to all humans regardless of their geographical or cultural standings.  Human Rights are define as “inalienable, self-evident, and applicable to all humans” (Fagan, 2009, P.51).   

 

Paragraph 1.2 Topic Sentence (1st piece of support for the thesis)

·         Definition topic sentence

1)      Human rights are the fundamental rights and freedoms that absolutely applies to everyone globally, from a child’s birth until last breath. They observe irrespective of wherein you are from, what you believe or the way you pick out every day stay your life. There could by no means be taken away, even though they could every day be confined – as an instance if someone breaks the regulation, or within the pastimes of countrywide protection.

2)      Those basic rights are every day on values like dignity, fairness, equality, admire and independence. However, human rights are not just summary ideas – they are define and guarded by using regulation. In Britain, the human rights are protected by way of the Human Rights Act 1998.

·         Providing example/ evidence / Quotation

1.      It is the ideology of the majority that all human beings should have a set of basic rights and freedoms. This has profound significance in Britain. Milestone developments in Britain embraces the Magna Carta of 1215, the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 as well as the Bill of Rights of 1689. (Human Right commission, 2017)

2.      The Declaration formed the basis for the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950. British lawyers played a key role in drafting the Convention, with Winston Churchill a key player. It protects the human rights of people in countries that belong to the Council of Europe, including the UK.

3.      The Human Rights Act 1998 made these rights part of UK domestic law. The Act suggests that courts in the United Kingdom can hear human rights cases. Before it was pass to law, people had to take their complaints to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France.

·         The significance of the evidence

1)      Jack Donnely 2002 (Donnely argues against this points made)

2)      UN General Assembly Human Rights Council, Resolution 27/31, Civil Society Space, A/HRC/RES/27/31 (3 October 2014); UN General Assembly Human Rights Council, Resolution 24/21, Civil Society Space, A/HRC/RES/24/21 (9 October 2013).

3)      Cruz, K. & Brown, W. (2016). Feminism, law, and neoliberalism: An interview and discussion with Wendy Brown. Feminist Legal Studies, 24, 69-89.a

 

Paragraph 2 Topic sentence (2st piece of support for the thesis)

·         Elaborate topic sentence

1)      Universal human rights theory holds that human rights apply to everyone simply by virtue of their being human. There are certain challenges. One visible challenging concept of universality comes from ‘cultural relativism’, that states that human rights is indirectly capitalism and cultural hegemony, which indirectly is political control. While this perspective may be tempting, the relativist argument encompasses a debilitating self-contradiction? By postulating that the only sources of moral validity are individual cultures themselves, one is precluded from making any consistent moral judgements.

2)      The cultural relativist in fact makes a Universalist judgement in arguing that ‘tolerance’ is the ultimate good to be respected above all. Hence, it is a naturally self-refuting theory that engages universalism in its own rejection of the concept. In a practical sense, the cultural relativist position is foundationally incompatible with human rights, as human rights themselves could not exist if they were stripped of common moral judgement

 

·         Providing example/ evidence / Quotation

1)      Brown, W. (2004). “The most we can hope for…:” Human rights and the politics of fatalism. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 103(2), 451- 463.

2)      Todd Landman, ‘Holding the Line: Human Rights Defenders in the Age of Terror’, British Journal of Politics & International Relations 8, no. 2 (2006): 123–47.

 

·         The significance of the evidence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paragraph 3 Critic Topic Sentence (3st piece of support for the thesis)

·         Elaborate topic sentence

1.      Can human dignity help mitigate the concerns identified with the human rights approach?

2.      The ‘democratic’ tradition of human dignity has laid a basis for the notion of human rights as popularly conceived of in the present day, including those inscribed in the Universal Declaration of Human Right

 

·         Providing example/ evidence / Quotation

1. 1A Human Dignity Perspective: Exploring The Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility

Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, Volume 211, 2015, pp. 127-134 Hedy Desiree Rumambi, Susy Amelia Marentek.

1. 2Neoliberalism and the politics of enclosure in North American small-scale fisheries Marine Policy, Volume 61, 2015, pp. 303-312 Evelyn Pinkerton, Reade Davis

 

 

·         The significance of the evidence

 

Paragraph 4 Critic Topic Sentence (4st piece of support for the thesis)

·         Elaborate topic sentence

 

1.      That may be his argument but it is misconceived. As well as being members of a global legal community with its rather loose norms, each country constitutes a separate legal jurisdiction, with its own legislature, courts and domestic legal sanctions. Many countries have enacted laws implementing these human norms, such as the UK, New Zealand and Hong Kong. These laws known as ‘human rights’ legislation or ‘bill of rights’ enactments become quite specific in their application.

2.      All efforts to assert protection on other states by Human Rights arguably , is an indirect way of transmitting western ideologies, therefore revealing that Human Rights do provide cover for imperialist powers.

 

·         Providing example/ evidence / Quotation

1.      Todd Landman, ‘Holding the Line: Human Rights Defenders in the Age of Terror’, British Journal of Politics & International Relations 8, no. 2 (2006): 123–47.

2.      Stephen D. Krasner, ‘Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables’, International Organization 36, no. 2 (1982): 185.

 

·         The significance of the evidence

 

 

Paragraph 5 Conclusion

·         Summarise your (four) topic sentences

1.      Human rights treaties were not so much an act of idealism as an act of hubris, with more than a passing resemblance to the civilising efforts undertaken by western governments and missionary groups in the 19th century, which did little good for native populations while entangling European powers in the affairs of countries they did not understand. A humbler approach is long overdue.

 

·         Discuss how the ideas paragraphs 2, 3, 4

1)      So far, this essay has outlined some of the ways that Human Rights offer universal protection. One of the argument put forth that supports the universal protection that human Rights offer is the idea that human rights are: “applicable to all humans” (Donelly, 2003)hence protection is given to all regardless of their cultural beliefs. On the contrary, an argument against the protection that Human Rights offers is the fact that: it assumes that non-western beliefs or ideologies are explicitly wrong or inferior to that of the west, thus leading to the application of Human Rights protection regardless of the cultural beliefs of a nation.

·         Support your evidence

1.      Stephen D. Krasner, ‘Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables’, International Organization 36, no. 2 (1982): 185.

2.      Jack, M. (2007) The challenge of Human Rights. Blackwell  publishing.

3.      Tibor, R, M. ( 2001) Individual Rights Reconsidered. Hoover institution press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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