Site Loader

Municipal
solid waste (MSW), are products invented in the 1st place by humans,
in the environment, there is nothing called trash, cause the environment
(recycle), the elements of it work on a harmonized way to leave nothing not
used. Over population produced waste; that caused our plant to hold the more
than 30 % of its capacity, that has created in an addition of garbage in
specific places. 4

 

MSW
management needs collaboration for efficient delivery, and it plays a major
part of the waste cycle waste composition, collection, recycling, proceeding,
and disposal. The management of waste require input form economical, legal,

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Environmental
and governmental players. The failure of one element will cause the whole
management failure. The management structure is made of different parts and
each one of them depends on the other and they are cultural, behavioral,
institutional and political frameworks. These components need to work together
to achieve management target.

 

The
Management of MSW is the most laborious compared to other trash types, the
challenge gets harder in the weak part of the world, the issues that causing
the poor management of the MNS are: low recycling rate, lousy treatment, old
and cheap technologies, not aware of health dangers. These factors are scaring
the poor and middle-income nations; because there will no control between the
urban and rural without proper planning.

 

The
produce of the MNS every day is 2x109tons 5, the level produces on family
income level, level of education, weather season, the type of the place that
the family stays in and waste collection system. The economic factor plays a
big part of waste generating; the higher financial status nations have a
massive MSW amount 6.

 

The
composition of MSW is different from house to other. It shows that the lower
income households generate more organic food waste, the significant amount of
natural waste was recorded in the rural areas. Because most of the rich people
eat processed food, Urban regions recorded big amount of MSW such as (plastic,
glass, metal, paper). The organic waste could be used to make a cheap
fertilizer for low-income nations; recycling mostly depends on MSW. The
efficiency of waste management is linked to the waste collection coverage which
relies on the wealth of the country, in the developed nations waste collection and
transport take the most significant portion of the waste collection cost (fig.1).

 

MSW
treatment and disposal depends on the waste quality, rich countries can afford
the perfect technology, but most developed nations still depend on landfills,
junk dumps are still prevalent in most of the Asian and African countries,
these uncontrolled discharges, cause various soil and water contamination
disasters. Sanitary landfills are found on the developed nations such as
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Mexico. These are engineered landfills where waste
is frequently packed on layers with proper landfills cover 7.

 

MNS
management needs significant attention from the governments, because it is one
of the three primary sources of environmental breakdowns on the Asian nations
and most of the world can’t afford the high-end technology to sort the waste
perhaps no technology could sort or manage the waste in a proper way.

 

Orbital
debris

 

On
the 10th of February 2009, at 790km above the ground over Siberia, two
satellites crashed into each other with the velocity of 11km/s 8, making 2000
fragment bigger than 10cm and many smaller chunks. In 1997 iridium 33 was
launched, it was one of the 66 satellite that provides voice and data services
all around the world, the other spacecraft was cosmos 22521, a decommissioned
communication satellite launched in 1993 by the Commonwealth of independent
states (Russia), this was a significant event in the orbital debris history,
because it was the first accident between two large satellites. Earth-orbiting
objects are essential for every one of us; we depend on this objects in our
everyday life, like the weather forecast, communication, security and
scientific research satellites. Even tiny space debris particles could harm or
destroy these satellites or any spacecraft because this orbital debris could
reach 11km/s in low earth orbit (LEO).

 

 The most trusted sources about the growth of
the orbital debris population by the catalog of artificial orbiting objects
maintained by the U.S Strategic Command’s (USSTRAT-COM) and Space Surveillance
Network (SSN) in the 1st of January 2010, was tracking actively nearly 21,000
artificial objects at an altitude of 40,000 km from earth surface, the
numerical measurements show that there are additional 500,000 debris between
1-10cm diameter and a million debris smaller than 1cm. These tracked objects
include functional spacecraft and retired spaceships, rockets and debris from
different sources. Any object not doing the thing is designed for is debris, including
upper stages that have delivered their spacecraft’s and no longer operational,
of the 21 thousand objects mentioned before less than 1000 are working shuttle.

(fig.2) shows the amount of growth in the space age, based on USSTRATCOM
catalog 9.

 

Orbital
fragmentations are produced from accidental or massive explosions, more than
5o% of the USSTRATCOM cataloged partials are fragmentation debris, Since June
1961 were the first recording happened more than 190 satellites breakups, as
well most of fragmentations had been the result of huge explosion from some
sorts of energy for example: batteries and pressed gasses. These explosions produce
very few long living debris and this don’t play a major factor in the long-term
space debris problem. Collisions created big debris clouds including the
massive orbital debris producing event, the fengyun-1c ASAT test (table 1)
shows the biggest space changing events.

 

Mission-related
debris are object disposed of during satellite delivering or operations,
including lens caps, separation and packing devices and some object were
discarded in human activities most of the missions have small amount of this
debris by the awareness of the debris environmental issues the space agencies
reduced the amount debris from this kind of missions.

 

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Lewis!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out