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Jordan is considered one of the sun-belt countries,
which possesses high solar radiation on its horizontal surface. This work
presents the energy output of photovoltaic (PV) module
for three sites in Jordan; these three sites are Irbid (latitude 32° N and
longitude 35° E)
in the northern Jordan, Amman (latitude 32° N and longitude 36° E) in the central Jordan, and Aqaba (latitude 29° N and longitude 35° E) in south Jordan. The paper analyses the solar
radiation data and ambient temperature to compare the PV energy output at these
sites. The analysis showed that the Aqaba is the best
location for PV energy production with respect to other locations. It is
found that the annual energy production for a module with 340 W capacities is 502
kWh.

 

Keywords: Photovoltaic;
Solar radiation; Energy output; sun-belt countries

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Abbreviations

FF

Fill factor

G

Solar irradiance (W/m2)

Ipm

Current at maximum power (A)

ISG

Short circuit current (A)

NOTC

Normal operating cell temperature (C)

Pmax

Power at maximum power point (W)

Ta

Ambient temperature (C)

Tc

Cell operating temperature (C)

Vac

Open
circuit voltage (V)

Vpm

Voltage at maximum power (V)

 

1.   
Introduction

Jordan relies on imported oil from neighboring countries, which
causes a financial burden on the national economy1, 2. Domestic energy resources, including oil and gas, cover only 3–4%
of the country’s energy needs. Jordan spends more than 7.5% of its national
income on the purchase of energy. The levels of energy and electricity
consumption will probably double in 15 years. Jordan accounts an average of
15.85×103 ton of emissions, of which CO2 constitutes
around 97%; fossil fuel combustion almost producing 85% by mass of the total
GHG emissions 3.

 

Recently, photovoltaic (PV) systems are being widely used to
generate electricity due to its positive features. These features and other
advantages make photovoltaic technology as promising one over other generation
systems. Examples of these features are: PV systems converting the solar radiation
into electricity through a simple solid state device which has low
temperature,no moving parts in the PV systems, low maintenance cost, pollution
free, long effective operation life, high reliability and easy to install and
operate 4-11. Production power amount from a PV system depends on the available
solar energy at the site and the performance of the PV panels. For that, electricity
generation cost varies from one site to another site. Therefore, for more
electricity generation and environmental profitable PV panels must be installed
at sites where relatively higher solar irradiation intensities are available
and pollution levels are also high.

 

The performance of PV systems at different sites around the world
are studied from many researchers. Kim et al. 12study the performance and present economic analysis for two installed
photovoltaic systems in different locations in Korea. The performance of a grid
connected Photovoltaic is monitored and studied for a long time in order to
improve the PV performance 13-18.Ayompe et al. 19, 20presented the measured performance of a 1.72 kW rooftop
photovoltaic system in Dublin, Ireland. Many studies presented a solution of
the high energy consumption of the world countries, PV can contribute
significantly to the reduction of the primary, conventional energy supply, as
well as to the reduction of the CO2 emissions21-28.

 

Several researchers 29-33 compared between the roof-mounted PV system and using a PV system
within the boundary of the building site to generate electricity which is less
favorable because the area outside the building’s footprint could be shaded or
developed in the future. Thus, it cannot be guaranteed to provide long-term
generation.

 

The energy situation in Jordan, presented and discussed the
importance of the increasing role of renewable energy technologies in the
energy mix in Jordan34-41. Badran42has studied different solar power technologies. He suggested that
the Jordanian government needs to do more serious steps towards the utilization
of industrial solar energy for power generation applications in arid regions.

 

The studies in the above have discussed the energy situation in
Jordan and examined the potential of PV energy production at different
locations. In this study, the PV energy output at three locations in Jordan is
presented. The three locations (Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba) will be studied to
estimate the annual energy output per PV module and the reduction in the amount
of emitted greenhouse gases. In addition, these estimations are used to
determine the best site of PV power plant in Jordan.

2.   
Locations Data

The three locations in Jordan were investigated in
this paper at the north (Irbid), the center of Jordan (Amman), and south
(Aqaba) between (35° E and 36° E) latitude and (29° N and 32° N) Longitude and
various elevations between 50 and 1120 m. The geographical locations of these
stations are shown in Figure. 1. The global radiation which is a combination of
direct, diffuse, and albedo radiation 43-46 for the three sites is listed in table. 1 47; these data present the monthly average global
radiation on a square meter per day. The data have been recorded for a period
of more than 10 years. According to the data obtained from these sites, the
summation of global solar radiation available over the year in Irbid, Amman and
Aqaba is 1876, 1967 and 2151 kWh/m2respectively. In addition, the
monthly average ambient temperature in the daylight of the three sites is
listed in table. 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 1 Distribution
of three locations, Pre-selected, over Jordan48.

Table. 1 Monthly average global radiation and ambient
temperature

Month

Monthly average
global radiation (kWh/m2/day)

Average Daily Sunshine Hours
 

Monthly average
ambient temperature (°C)

A

B

C

A

B

C

A

B

C

January

5.4

5.5

5.9

6

7

8

9

8

14

February

6.7

6.8

7.1

6

7

8

10

9

16

March

8.4

8.5

8.7

7

8

9

12

14

19

April

10

10

10

8

10

9

16

17

24

May

11

11

11

9

11

11

20

23

27

June

11.4

11.3

11.3

11

13

12

22

25

31

July

11.1

11.1

11.1

11

13

12

24

26

33

August

10.3

10.4

10.4

11

13

12

23

25

33

September

8.9

8.9

9.1

10

11

11

23

26

31

October

7.1

7.3

7.6

9

10

10

21

23

26

November

5.7

5.7

6.1

7

8

9

14

16

20

December

5

5.1

5.5

5

6

7

9

12

15

3.  
Estimation Energy Production

The PV system electricity generator is the PV module,
which is consists of a number of solar cells and these cells are connected in different
ways on a panel. The area of solar cell is of the order of few square centimeters
49. The efficiency of the PV module is the main
parameter in the system which represents the ratio between the PV power output
and the global solar radiation input. Nowadays, PV modules with 20 % efficiency
are available in the market with reasonable cost 50-52.

 

In this work, a SUNIVA (OPT340-72-4-100) PV module is
chosen which has a module efficiency of 17.43 %. This module has a maximum
power output of about 340 W when the global radiation is 1,000 W/m2
and with area about 2 m253. Table. 2 shows the manufacturing specifications of
the PV module 53 which are under standard laboratory test conditions
(air mass 1.5, irradiance = 1,000 W/m2, cell temperature = 25 °C).

 

Table 2 Specifications of the PV module

Characteristics

Value

Units

Maximum power (Pmax)

340

W

Maximum power voltage (Vpm)

37.8

V

Maximum power current (Ipm)

8.99

A

Open circuit voltage (Voc)

46

V

Short circuit current (Isc)

9.78

A

Module Dimensions

1970 x 990

mm

Temperature coefficient of Pmax

-0.420

%/°C

Temperature coefficient of Voc

0.335

V/°C

Temperature coefficient of lsc

-0.047

mA/°C

Operating Module Temperature

-40 To 85

°C

 

The maximum power output (Pmax) of the PV
module under the site weather conditions can be estimated by the following
equation 54.

 

                                                                                 (1)

 

Where Isc is short circuit current, Voc
is open circuit voltage, and FF is fill factor.

The fill factor is the ratio of the maximum actual
power output to the theoretical maximum power output. The fill factor is given
as:

 

 (2)

 

where Ipm is current at maximum power and
Vpm is voltage at maximum power.

 

It is clear from the Eq. 1 that the short circuit
current is proportional to the irradiance (G) and the open circuit voltage is
proportional to the cell temperature (Tc). The practical short circuit current
and practical open circuit voltage at the site are given as 18:

 

                                                          
(3)

 

                                        (4)

 

The cell temperature (Tc) is determined by

 

                          (4) 

 

where NOCT is normal operating cell temperature
(usually between 42 and 46 ?C),
and Ta is ambient temperature 18.

 

The PV power output measurement system layout is
shown schematically in Figure. 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 2 Measurement system layout

The system consists of PV module connected to digital
voltmeter/ammeter device and DC load. The voltmeter/ ammeter device is used to
measure the open circuit voltage and the short circuit current. The power of DC
load must be equal or greater than the maximum PV power capacity to ensure
consumption of all the PV electricity. The digital weather station is used to
measure the ambient temperature and solar radiation at the site. The
thermocouples are mounted on the top and bottom surfaces of PV module and inserted
between the glasses and the solar cell the PV surface to measure the PV cell
temperature 55 and taking the average value of the these
temperatures. The data of voltmeter, ammeter, thermocouples, and weather
station are collected by data logger and stored in the computer over the year.

4.   
Results

4.1    PV Energy Output

PV module energy output depends on the available
solar radiation at the selected location, ambient temperature at the selected
location and the efficiency of PV module. In this investigation, the same PV
module is used for the three locations. The main measurement parameters of the
PV output are the short circuit current and the open circuit voltage, the short
circuit current is evaluated by Eq. 3 which is proportional to the available
solar radiation at the site.

 

Figure.3presents the average short circuit current
for the three locations during the year, the maximum average short circuit
current of Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba are 4.65, 4.28 and 5.51 A respectively, while
the minimum average short circuit current are2.03, 2.17 and 2.69 A
respectively. The maximum value of average short circuit current for the three locations
occurs in June, and the minimum was in December.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 3PV module average short circuit current for
the three locations

Equation. 4 is used to calculate the open circuit voltage.
It is clear from the Eq. 4 that the open circuit voltage is affected by the
cell temperature at the site, so it should first calculate the cell temperature
than calculate the open circuit voltage. To calculate the cell temperatures
using the Eq. 5, it is clear from the Eq. 5 that the cell temperature is
affected directly by ambient temperature, which is presented in Table. 1 for
the three locations.

 

Figure. 4presents the results of the average cell
temperature through the year. The maximum cell temperature of Irbid, Amman, and
Aqaba are 60.6, 63.54 and 70.53°C, respectively. Figure.5 shows the open
circuit voltage for the three locations through the year. The maximum average
open circuit voltages of Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba are 45.93, 45.65 and 45.28 V,
respectively, and the minimum are 43, 42.8 and 42.2 V respectively. The maximum
value of average open circuit voltage is for the three locations occurring in
January because the ambient temperature is minimum, and the minimum value of
average open circuit voltage for the three sites occurs in July because the
ambient temperature is maximum.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 4 Average cell temperature of PV module for
the three locations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 5 Average open circuit voltage of PV module
for the three locations

 

PV module power output under the real site weather
conditions can be estimated by Eq. 1. Figure.6 shows the result of power of the
PV. It is found that the maximum power for Irbid, Amman and Aqaba can be
reached at 151, 153.33 and 175.16 W respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 6 PV module power output for the three
locations

The average daily and monthly PV energy outputs per
one module and over the year are estimated and presented in Figures. 7 and 8,
respectively. It is clear from Figure. 7 that the maximum average daily PV
energy outputs of Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba are 1.66, 2.02 and 2.10 kWh
respectively, and the minimum are 0.35, 0.45 and 0.63 kWh respectively. Figure 8
shows the monthly PV energy output over a year. The maximum monthly PV energy
outputs of Irbid, Amman and Aqaba are 49.83, 60.88 and 63.06 kWh respectively,
and the minimum are 10.58, 13.50 and 19.17 kWh respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 7 The average daily PV energy output for one
module

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure. 8 The monthly PV energy output for one module

In order to determine
the best energy output location, one has to determine the cumulative energy
output during the year. Figure 9 shows the total cumulative energy output over
the year for the three considered locations. The total energy outputs per
module for Irbid, Amman and Aqaba are 359.26, 443.11 and 501.97 kWh
respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 9 The annual PV energy output for one module

 

5.   
Conclusions

In this work, the performance of a PV module is
estimated under three location conditions in Jordan. According to these locations
data, the annual global solar radiation available in Irbid, Amman and Aqaba is
1876, 1967 and 2151 kWh/m2 respectively. The generated electricity
per one PV module during the year in Irbid, Amman and Aqaba is 359.3, 443.1 and
502.0 kWh respectively.

It can be concluded that the location with the
highest global solar radiation has a best capacity of electrical power
generation. On other hand, the location with highest global solar radiation is
the best in reducing the amount of greenhouse gases and it is found to be the Aqaba
location among the considered three locations in Jordan.

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