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EVOLUTION AND
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HUMAN RESOURSE EFFECTIVENESS

Botta
Prasad*, Sudikonda Teja

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Department
of Business Administration

Acharya
Nagarjuna University

Guntur

Abstract:

In
the previous quite a few years, innovation has dramatically affected human
asset administration (HR) procedures and practices. For instance, innovation,
particularly the World Wide Web, has changed numerous HR forms including human
asset arranging, enlistment, determination, execution administration, work
process, and remuneration. These new frameworks have empowered HR experts to
give better support of the majority of their partners (e.g., candidates,
workers, directors), and lessened the managerial weight in the field. In spite
of the far reaching utilization of these frameworks, there has been an amazing
lack of hypothesis and research on the subject. Accordingly, the motivation
behind this unique issue is to (a) propel hypothesis and research on Human
Resource Information Systems (HRIS) , (b) offer new bearings for examine on the
theme, and (c) upgrade the adequacy of these frameworks in associations.
Subsequently, this article surveys the advancement of developing innovations in
HRIS, gives a short review of the patterns in the Technology.

 

Keywords:
Human Resource Management (HRM), World Wide Web, Stakeholders, Human Resource
Information System (HRIS),Human Asset Administration.

INTRODUCTION:

 HR innovation can be characterized as any
innovation that is utilized to draw in, contract, hold, and keep up HR, bolster
HR organization, and improve HRM. This innovation can utilized as a part of
various sorts of human asset data frameworks (HRIS) and by different partners,
for example, directors, workers, and HR experts. This innovation can be gotten
to in various ways. There is almost certainly that innovation has made it
simpler and speedier to assemble, examine, and convey data and speak with
representatives. All the more essentially, it can possibly decrease the
regulatory weight on the HR division so it is better ready to concentrate on
more important HR exercises, for example, furnishing directors with the
aptitude they have to settle on more successful HR related choices.

                                        

Fig.1: Components of HR

Research
has shown that organizations who adequately utilize innovation to deal with
their HR capacities will have a huge favorable position over those that don’t.
Be that as it may, not all organizations have the most recent and most
prominent innovation, nor do all organizations require the most developed
innovation, yet all organizations do have HR-related data needs. Consider the
data needs of a little organization rather than a huge association of 3000
workers. A little organization may utilize a basic Microsoft Word or Microsoft
Excel record to keep essential representative information, while an
organization with 3000 workers deals with a more noteworthy volume of
information. This action can be overwhelming without a more refined instrument
to store and recover information. We can think about the different levels of
refinement by looking at the transformative parts of HR innovation. These
viewpoints can be described into four phases of improvement: (1) paper-based
frameworks, (2) early (PC) innovation, (3) electronic databases, and (4)
Web-based innova.

Electronic
innovation has been a critical improvement in empowering HR to decrease
value-based exercises and increment client and vital administrations. In today?s
condition multinational associations need to deal with a worldwide workforce to
accomplish maintainable development. The general population in the association
are the most critical segment to manage business comes about. 2014 was the year
that cloud went standard, particularly in HR. As the financial downturn leveled
out, and a few districts saw indications of development or if nothing else a
type of adjustment, HR divisions wherever came to understand that innovation bolster
has in a general sense changed and it?s time to act. What?s diverse this time
is that new HR innovation is not intended to make the HR office more
proficient, yet centers past HR, to expand the client encounter, to include esteem
over the business, and to enhance aggressiveness. The part of the HR proficient
has changed on a very basic level because of innovation. The center abilities
that have created are dominance of HR innovation, key commitment, individual
validity, HR conveyance, and business knowledge.

METHODOLOGY:

Our analysis was based on
a review of refered articles, discussion papers and short papers in key
academic journals from the past 10 years. While the use of just 10 years means
we can only offer a snapshot view, it does enable us to identify those issues
that are current on the research agenda, and those that are not.

 

EVOLUTION OF HRIS:

Prior
to the implementation of automated systems, the human resource function used
manual paper record keeping and reporting systems that were typically
cumbersome and very time consuming. These manual systems were a major part of
the role of human resource management through most of the 20th century. In the
1960s and 1970s, mainframe computer systems were used to automate HR record
keeping and payroll, and they began to reduce the administrative burden in the
field. In the 1980s standalone software packages were developed to provide
management system functionality that facilitated HR functions such as applicant
tracking, performance appraisal, and training and development. These new
systems were called human resource information systems (HRIS), and were defined
as information systems used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve
and distribute pertinent information regarding an organization’s human
resources (Kavanagh, Gueutal, & Tannenbaum, 1990). These new HRIS also
facilitated human resource planning, and enabled organizations to better
utilize the talents and skills in their workforces. In addition, they helped
the HR function produce government reports required for EEO, affirmative
action, and OSHA, etc. However, the original HRIS used mainframe and
mini-computers, and required extensive support from information technology (IT)
professionals. As a result, HR professionals were very dependent on IT experts
to manage the system, run queries, and develop needed reports.

In
the late 1980s client architecture and microcomputers emerged as the dominant
forms of technology. HR databases were stored on central servers connected to
local area networks (LAN) or wide area networks (WAN). This change meant that
HR professionals and others in the organization could access these systems from
their worksites, and databases dedicated to HR were developed for both
mainframe and client server platforms. PeopleSoft version 1 was released in the
late 1980s, and represented the first fully integrated suite of HR applications
that ran on client–server architecture. The 1990s witnessed a growth in
integrated HRIS that managed multiple HR functions, and provided more
sophisticated management and reporting features. These systems were either
standalone or part of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software suites
(developed for various managerial functions such as finance and operations)
that integrated HR and broader organizational data within one, large-scale
organization-wide system. The next development in the evolution of HRIS was
that organizations began to use intranets to gather, store, and disseminate
information. These new intranets were secured so that only authorized users
could access the system using a code or password. The use of intranet systems
enabled organizations to provide internal stakeholders (e.g., employees and
managers) access to information. As a result, self-service systems gave
stakeholders the ability to manage HR processes. For instance, employees could
access the system to update their records, enroll in benefits, or apply for job
openings, and managers could use the systems to generate reports or develop HR
plans (Marler & Dulebohn, 2005).

In
the mid 1990s the World Wide Web (Web) emerged as a means of facilitating
two-way communication and instant worldwide information over the Internet.
Toward the end of the 1990s, the migration to Web-enabled systems began, and
companies started developing HR software that would be compatible with Internet
architecture. In the early 2000s, this new software enabled the centralization
of all HR and organizational data so that users could access it through Web
browsers at any time or place. Organizations then began using Web-based
technology to interact with both internal and external stakeholders (e.g., job
applicants, employees, managers, benefit and payroll providers, etc.). For
instance, these systems enabled organizations to develop Web-based recruiting
systems that could be used to attract applicants anywhere in the world, and
allow them to apply for jobs online. It was at this time that these systems
became known as electronic human resource information systems (eHRM) because
they enabled HR transactions through the Internet (Lengnick-Hall & Mortiz,
2003). Not surprisingly, the new eHRM systems facilitated and modified a number
of HR processes including job analysis, recruitment, selection, training,
compensation, performance management and HR planning. Even though HRIS and HRMS
systems provided internal support for HR professionals, eHRM applications
provided access to all internal and external stakeholders (e.g., job
applicants, employees, managers, HR professionals, business partners).

 

APPLICATION AREAS OF TECHNOLOGY
IN HRM-FEW EXAMPLES

• ASM- a web based
employee assessment tool (application server model).

• CPM- computerized performance
monitoring

• E- Recruitment
software.

• Executive & key
people management software

•Internal mobility
software

• Performance management
software

• Vendor management
system

• Virtual office system

• Workflow technology

TRENDING TECHNOLOGIES FOR
HR EFFECTIVENESS

The transformational changes
taking place across the HR technology landscape have the potential to provide HROs
with better tools for managing the people side of their IT organizations.

Imagine a human
resources application that runs on employees’ smartphones, recommends nearby
people with whom they can network, helps to boost their productivity by
evaluating their time management, offers suggestions for improving work-life
balance, and provides targeted, on-the-job training. It may even share exercise
and healthy eating tips when and where employees need them.

This
scenario illustrates the consumer-focused direction of HR technology, one that
centers on employee productivity and engagement. Given the strides vendors are
making to provide those capabilities, they may become reality for large
enterprises sooner than many executives think, according to a new report from Bersin by Deloitte,
“HR Technology for 2016: 10
Big Disruptions Ahead” .

Indeed, HR technology providers are
increasingly designing applications for employees first, to enable workers to
learn and develop, collaborate, share feedback, steer their careers, and even
manage other people more effectively. The trend reflects a major shift from a
decade ago, when vendors designed HR systems primarily to streamline HR
administration, improve record-keeping, and help redesign HR processes. Today, digital technologies are transforming
nearly every aspect of HR, from sourcing and recruiting to talent and
performance management.

The current
wave of technology-led HR transformation has two primary implications for CIOs.
One, it offers a range of potentially promising new tools to help IT leaders
better manage and engage the talent inside their organizations. Two, it creates
opportunities for increased HR-IT partnership as
HR leaders seek vendor selection and technology integration advice from CIOs.

In addition to technology aimed at engaging
employees, several other trends are likely to influence CIOs’ and CHROs’
purchasing decisions:

1.       Mobile emerges as a new HR technology platform:
With
smartphone use surging and employees across a range of functions seeking access
to corporate applications via their mobile devices, companies are scrambling to
adapt their HR systems accordingly. In some cases, they may create their own
apps—pared-down versions of enterprise software that offer users streamlined
access to basic HR functionality, such as submitting time sheets or expense
reports. In cases where companies are ready to replace existing HR systems,
they may look for vendors that offer mobile apps as part of their core
services. Regardless of whether companies build or buy, delivering HR
functionality via mobile platforms requires companies to consider the different
features, mechanics, and user dynamics associated with mobile devices.

2.       ERP vendors catch up as credible talent
management providers: A decade ago, the talent management
market was dominated by best-of-breed providers selling licensed software.
Recruiting, learning, and performance management tools were sold as separate
products, forcing companies to stitch those systems together and integrate them
with their ERP systems. Then ERP vendors began acquiring these smaller
companies and weaving specialized talent management products into their broader
suites. As a result, many ERP vendors now provide end-to-end talent management
solutions that meet the requirements of large, complex organizations.

3.       “Built for the cloud” technology providers
redefine HR function: Even as ERP providers expand their HR
product lines, a “third wave” of vendors is emerging with cloud-based talent
solutions that are user-friendly, inexpensive to buy, and built for mobile
devices from the start. These new vendors target a range of core HR activities,
including payroll, recruiting, learning, and employee engagement.

4.       New software categories include feedback,
engagement, and culture management: Companies have grown increasingly
concerned about low levels of employee engagement. In response, a plethora of
software vendors have popped up that provide new tools for soliciting real-time employee feedback, assessing culture,
monitoring engagement, and managing employee performance and goals. These tools
allow organizations to more promptly uncover and respond to employees’ issues,
needs, and suggestions.

5.       Performance and goal management are reinvented
with feedback and check-ins.: Dozens of large companies that have
replaced traditional, year-end performance management practices with more agile, real-time, and feedback-driven approaches have found their
existing performance management software doesn’t support their new processes.
Startups see an opportunity to fill this gap but, to date, they have yet to
build into their products many of the features that large companies typically
want, such as reviews and ratings. As a result, companies may have trouble
finding the appropriate tools to support a performance management redesign.

6.       Startups move to integrate learning content
from disparate sources. The growing need for training has created
tremendous demand for easy-to-use, Web-based professional development content.
Companies are increasingly offering online training from a range of sources and
platforms, but the challenge many now face is bringing this content together to
create an integrated learning experience for employees. As with the areas of
performance, engagement, and culture management, small vendors are stepping in
to address this need.

7.       The field of predictive analytics continues to
grow:  Predictive analytics is likely to become one of the most
important features in HR technology platforms over the next several years. Even
though many HR organizations have been slow to adopt people analytics, a wide variety of
vendors offer impressive capabilities in that area, including the ability to
identify “toxic” employees, recommend training, predict attrition and unplanned
absences, and highlight the promotions and transfers most likely to produce
high-performing employees.

8.       Cloud computing hasn’t dampened demand for
technology services: While cloud-based software is generally
easier than on-premise systems to implement and maintain, it still requires
significant effort to roll out. Bersin’s research shows organizations that
purchase new cloud-based HR systems experience many unexpected challenges
during the transition: New systems have to be “harmonized” with existing
processes, integrated with existing systems, and introduced to users with vast
amounts of training and communication. To ease the switch from on-premise to
cloud, select HR vendors that offer high levels of service, products with
open-programming interfaces, and industry-specific experience.

9.       HR technology innovation brings employee
engagement to the fore: The HR technology landscape is changing
more rapidly than ever. As CIOs and HR leaders look to upgrade and replace
existing HR systems, they should consider vendors and tools that offer
consumer-like experiences, mobile capabilities, and predictive analytics—and
allow employees to test them for ease of use, not just for features and
workflow. The number of employees using HR tools and the duration and frequency
of their usage will become important measures of engagement and effectiveness.

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