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Eugenics

Eugenics
originates from the Greek roots for good and “birthplace,” or
“great birth” and includes applying standards of hereditary qualities
and heredity for enhancing humankind. Francis Galton first invented the term
eugenics in the late 1800’s (Norrgard 2008). Galton was an English scholar,
whose collection of work spread over many fields, including measurements, brain
research, meteorology and hereditary qualities. The Eugenics movement increased
in the Unified States in the mid 1900’s, directed by Charles Davenport, a prominent
researcher, and Harry Laughlin, a former instructor who was interested in
breeding (Rivard, 2014).

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After
eugenics became deeply rooted in the United States, the idea shifted into Germany.
Hitler began to study the American eugenics laws. Hitler recruited more followers
among the Germans by assuring them science supported the idea. Hitler’s hate
for different races came from his own mind; however, the plan of eugenics that Hitler
accepted was created in America (Black, 2003). Hitler gladly told his companions
just how diligently he followed the progress of the American eugenics movement.
He also told a confederate that had great interest, and even wrote a letter to
American eugenics leader Madison Allow, calling his race-based book, “The
Death of the Unequaled Race,” and called the book his “bible” (Black,
2003).

Coerced
sterilization was used as a mean to control the unequaled race. The undesired
population was considered to be single moms, immigrants, poor people, non-white
individuals, the disabled, and mentally ill. The Government financed neutering programs
occurred in 32 states all through the twentieth century. These partial ideas
was driven by science and social control, these projects enforce policies on immigration
and segregation. Davenport established the eugenics Record Office at Chilly
Spring Harbor Research center on Long Island “to enhance the normal,
physical, mental, and unstable characteristics of the human family. 

Many
individuals can concur eugenics was a development that happened in history.
However, I have not seen people talking about eugenics as of late and today. As
a general public we do not call many activities eugenics or talk about the
dangers of genetic counseling but it is actually still around only thing that
is different is that it is not forced on the public. For example, there is
prenatal testing in order to avoid having children with disabilities (Kpagination,
2017). It is recommend that people with disorders should refrain from having
children because they have a disability. In nations, for example, Australia,
impaired individuals are still being sterilized “for their own
security”(Kpagination, 2017). We disregard to observe eugenics when
discussing human genomics and quality altering programs, for example, CRISPR. What
about the discussion of designer babies?

Indiana
passed the world’s first sterilization law, which approved medicinal directors
to clean individuals whose “malignant” genes seemed to threaten society(Stem,
2016). From 1907 to 1937, 32 US states followed, passing eugenic sterilization
laws as part of a public health project to battle decadence. In 1909, two years
after Indiana and couple weeks after Washington State and, California passed
the third sterilization bill in the country, the secretary of the State
Commission in Lunacy, granted medical superintendents of asylums and prisons(Stem,
2016).  This enactment let shelters and
detainment facilities to asexualize a patient or prisoner, if such activity
would enhance his or her “physical, mental, or moral condition. These laws
were developed to control the growth of the undesired population until the 1970s,
when the government began to retract these statutes(Stem, 2016).

Informed
consent and ethics was greatly violated. Most, if not all, people was sterilized
against their will.  The government and intuitions
coerced and deceived some of these women into being sterilized. The right to breed
without intervention from outsiders is one of the essential freedom we have, perceived
by moral theories and ethical traditions. The Supreme Court’s ruling permitted
around 64,000 Americans to be forcibly sterilized. 

We
can ethically explore the use of eugenics by first doing basic research. You do
basic research to learn about eugenics and its history. This way you can learn
what not to do.  Then we move on to
applied research, where you provide solutions. For example, from doing your
basic research you should have learned that sterilization was forced on the “undesirable
race”.  Your applied research should
contain ways to avoid forcing people to participate in sterilization. Your
research should not single out specific population or income. If you are going
to research eugenics you should be unbiased and value laden. 

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