Ethical principles include beneficence
in which to do good, non-maleficence which is not to do destruction, respect
for autonomy, equality, honesty, and righteousness (Scotland, 2012). According to (Laerd Dissertation, 2012), there are numbers
of crucial ethical principles that need consideration. As a researcher, there
are five major principles need to be aware of. There are minimalizing the risk
of destruction, obtaining informed consent, protecting anonymity and
confidentiality, avoiding unreliable practices, and providing the right to
In order to minimalizing the
risk of destruction, a researcher should obtain informed consent from
participants, keeping the namelessness and secrecy of participants,
avoiding unreliable practices when planning research, providing
participants with the right to pull out from research at any time.
Critique research should not mischief participants. There must be strong
rationalizations for any possibility that participants could be maltreated or
put in a position of awkwardness. Types of maltreats that a participants are
exposed such as a physical injury, psychological misery, social hindrance,
incursion of participant’s confidentiality and anonymity (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).
Furthermore, second ethical
principle for the researcher to be obeyed is obtaining informed permission. Informed
permission means the participants should realise the purpose of participation
in research and necessities of participants to the research. In other
words, the participants should be explained regarding the objective of the
research, the approaches being used, the possible results of the research, as
well as associated strains, discomforts, troubles, and possibilities that the
participants may exposed to. The researchers should target not to exclude
any factual evidence that will influence the consent will (or will not) be
established. Additionally, principle of informed permission is the participants
should be volunteers, participating without having been influenced and deceived.
The explanations should be provided in the case of informed permission cannot
be gained from participants (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).
Thirdly, the researchers
should protect the participants’ anonymity (namelessness) and confidentiality.
This is actually the most crucial part that will attract the participants to
deliver their information voluntarily, especially that information which is highly
privacy or sensitive in nature. Once the data has been collected, and not treated privately, whether in terms of storage
of data, analysis, or during the publication process, there might be more harm and
dangerous. However, this does not mean that all data collected from research
participants needs to be kept confidential or anonymous. It may be possible to reveal
the identity and views of individuals at various stages of the research process
(from data collection through to publication of the thesis). However,
permissions should be required before such confidential information is revealed.
Alternatively, the researchers are allowed to remove identifiers, like their dialect
terms, names, or geographical indications. Besides that, the researchers also
can provide substitutions when writing up the thesis. However, such a shedding
of identifiable information may not always be possible to anticipate at
the outset of your thesis when thinking about issues of research ethics. This
is not only a consideration for studies following a qualitative research
design, but also a quantitative research design. Furthermore, the
researchers have to seek permission for accessing to data and analysis which to
be constrained to the published material, possibly only permitting it to be seen
by certain individuals only. If the work is later issued, alterations would
then need to be prepared to protect the privacy of participants (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).
Fourthly, the researchers have
to avoid unreliable practices. Critique research should avoid any
kinds of unreliable practices. Dishonesty is sometimes being an essential
component of concealed research. Concealed research reflects research
where the identity of the spectator and/or the objective
of the research are not known to participants. The researchers may choose
to take part in concealed research because it is not practicable to
let everyone know the purpose of that research. Moreover, the unconcealed
observation or surveillance of the research may change the particular
phenomenon or data that is being studied (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).
Finally, the fifth ethical
principles that used to guide the researchers are providing the participants the
right to withdraw. In relation to the fourth principle, the participants will
always have the right to withdraw at any stage from the research progression.
This principle has to go under consolation. The participant should not be tensed or forced in
any way for trying to discontinue them from withdrawing (Laerd