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ES220 Creative Instructional Design- Jane KellyFitness and Health Third Year Students (Secondary School).General fitness includes incorporating a healthy and nutritious diet, physical activity, rest, relaxation and mental stability and well-being into a person’s daily routine.Since the words ‘General Fitness’ carry a huge, diverse concept, everyone can determine an approach that best facilitates their own lifestyle and can change it to suit their current lifestyle. While many of these common sense perceptions are valid there are a variety of some less-obvious ways in which one can go about improving their general fitness levels which will be in the topics of this lesson. Content                                                                                                                                      PageNutrition                                                                                                                                   3Nutrition Activity                                                                                                                      5 Skin                                                                                                                                            6Cardiovascular and Exercising                                                                                              8Weight Gain and Weight Loss                                                                                             10Heart Rate Experiment                                                                                                         12 Lesson Timeplan                                                                                                                   13Aims and Objectives                                                                                                             14Teachers Guideline                                                                                                               15Reference List                                                                                                                        17 NutritionAt the highest level, nutrition is separated into different categories: protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals and water. ProteinProtein is necessary for growth and repair of muscles in the body. It supplies your body with the necessary amino acids needed to keep health body tissue. While a lot of the amino acids that your body needs are produced within your body, there are a few that can only be obtained from outside food.Fat A lot of people view fat as a nutrient that is detrimental to their health.While over consumption of foods high in fat can lead to a number of health complications, the human body needs fat for a variety of different functions. Fat is responsible for storing and supplying energy throughout the body. Fat insulates the body and also acts as a protective layer for the bodies organs. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are responsible for supplying our bodies with energy. They are divided into different classes, Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit and an example of these are glucose which is found in many energy drinks. Disaccharides contain two sugar unit and examples of these are sucrose and lactose which are found in fruit. Finally Polysaccharides contain many sugar units and examples of these are cellulose and starch which can be found in foods such as bread and pasta. Vitamins and MineralsVitamins and minerals are not only necessary for the human body, but they are also responsible for a large variety of functions that take place within our bodies. For example, vitamins and minerals play a role in the regulation of our metabolism and the maintenance of healthy cellular growth and functionality.While several vitamins and minerals are produced within our bodies naturally, a large majority of them are not and can only be obtained through the consumption of nutritional foods. For this reason, it is important to ensure that you are consuming a well balanced whole foods diet that is nutrient rich on a daily basis. Vitamin types-Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E and KThese vitamins are stored in the body for a long period of time and work on the skin of the body, keeping your bone structure strong and many other functions.Water soluble vitamins: B , C . These vitamins are absorbed from fruit, vegetables and grains.By doing so, you will ensure that you are providing the nutrients that the body requires to effectively perform the various functions required to sustain life, prevent disease, and support a life that is filled with good health mentally and physically.WaterWater functions for the body is transportation and sanitation. It maintains blood volume , regulates temperature, keeps the tissues in the eyes and mouth functioning efficiently, dissolves waste products and removes them from the body and then brings nutrients from food to the body’s tissue.Water is excreted through the skin’s pores (sweat) and the body loses water through that and by digestion. It is vital to rehydrate by drinking enough fluids and eating foods that water is present in.Water is extremely important for humans in order to avoid dehydration. This creates a disruption of metabolic processes. It is usually due to an increase in exercise, disease, or high environmental temperature. Symptoms of dehydration are lack of energy, migraines , nausea and foot/leg cramps.The average amount of water a person should drink on average is 2 litres a day.By doing so, you will ensure that you are providing the nutrients that the body requires to effectively perform the various functions required to sustain life, prevent disease, and support a life that is filled with good health mentally and physically.Class Activity 1·      Match the vitamin group with the named vitamins.  A CWater SolubleKFat SolubleD B EClass Activity 2Label this food pyramid with 3 food sources in each columnSkinSkin is the largest organ in the body.The skin is responsible for many important functions of the body such as temperature regulation, insulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and protecting your organs and your body from a variety of different pathogens.As mentioned before, the skin is an organ and is actually quite complex in its construction. Skin is made up of three separate and distinct layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis.The epidermis is the most outer layer of skin. This is the part that is visual and typically associate with skin care. The dermis is the second layer of skin that is situated below the epidermis and is responsible for providing needed nutrients to the epidermis and removes waste products. The third layer of the skin is the hypodermis layer and is responsible for keeping the other two layers securely attached to the body.Many people only consider the epidermis when referring to skin care. However, the dermis layer plays just as an important, if not more important, role in skin care. Many blemishes of the skin start development in the dermis layer. Common Skin ConditionsFor being such a durable barrier made up of three layers, the skin actually seems quite vulnerable. Think about It’s very likely that you even now can find some minor skin condition on your body. Skin conditions are indeed some of the most common disorders of the human body.Acne: Red patches of skin on the face, upper chest, back, and shoulders, although acne can occur anywhere. Acne can come in the form of whiteheads, cysts, inflammation and blackheads.Age Spots: Are brown or black coloured flat patches that form on areas of the skin most often exposed to sunlight. Medically harmless, age spots are a common concern for dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons. AltBirthmarks: Present from birth, birthmarks are harmless brown or black spots or moles.Boils: A boil is formed when a hair follicle becomes infected and the infection spreads to nearby tissues in your skin. Boils may be firm, swollen, pink to red, and tender, but eventually develop into a pus-filled bump.Cold Sores: Cold sores are a form of herpes that occur on lips and the corners of your mouth. There is no cure to stop them from occurring , but cold sores tend to be harmless and respond to home remedies.Eczema: Eczema is a chronic skin condition that develops in the form of rashes and scaly skin that itch. Blisters may also appear in affected areas. Dry or bumpy skin can indicate the onset of an eczema breakout.Hives: While hives are most often produced by an allergic reaction, there are cause for the rash that indicates hives. Almost all outbreaks of hives will disappear within six weeks, but can last much longer.Impetigo: Impetigo is a common skin condition and is one to many pus-filled blisters. It can easily break and leave a raw red base. These sores take a long period of time to heal but typically don’t leave scars. Impetigo is contagious, so proper treatment and protection is necessary to prevent the condition from spreading.Psoriasis: This is a common condition that comes in the form of irritation or red skin. Most outbreaks of psoriasis result in scaly red skin that can flake. Psoriasis can appear slowly or quickly . It is most common in people ages 15 to 35.Rashes: Rashes are localized or extensive areas of red and irritated skin that can burn and  itch. Both common rashes and infectious rashes are common in humans and mainly can be cured through topical ointments or antibiotics.Ringworm: This is an infection caused by a fungus. Ringworm is commonly present on many parts on the body. This skin condition is marked by red, itchy, raised, and scaly patch that may blister .Rosacea: Those with rosacea may experience redness in their faces along with swelling and skin sores that look like acne. This skin condition is chronic and once present, tends to reappear throughout the affected person’s life.Scabies: Regarded as one of the most contagious among skin conditions, scabies is a disease of the skin brought on by a species of mite. Early stages of scabies can be hard to diagnose as it resembles many other skin conditions like allergic reactions and dermatitis.Scars: Scars are tissues that replace areas of lost skin as a result of an injury. With exception to very minor cuts like paper cuts, almost every wound will result in some form of scar.Shingles: Shingles, is a viral disease that develops into painful blisters in a small area, usually only on one side of the body. Over-the-counter antiviral medications, and steroids can help manage outbreaks.Spider Veins:  Spider veins are small and appear closer to the surface of the skin. Spider veins can be either red or blue in colour.Staph Infection: A staph infection is caused by a called staphylococcal. This bacteria causes symptoms like boils and rashes on the skin. Staph is also responsible for many cases of food poisoning. It has symptoms such as vomiting, weakness, and diarrhoea.Sunburn: Sunburn occurs when portions of your skin are overexposed to sunlight. UV rays can damage skin, . Frequently getting sunburned can lead to skin cancer.Stretch Marks: Most people will develop stretch marks at some point in their lives, which appear following over-stretching of the skin. When weight changes fast or during a pregnancy, skin can be stretched too far and tear.Varicose Veins: Veins that have filled with a large, unusual amount of blood often form varicose veins. Pain in the legs, heaviness, and swelling often are symptoms along with these visible, large veins. Individuals with jobs that require constant standing still are at a high risk of developing this condition.Warts: Warts appear as solid blisters and are caused by viral infections. There are actually ten different varieties of warts that appear on humans. The most common varieties are a cosmetic concern, but harmless health wise.Wrinkles: Wrinkles appear as folds, ridges, or creases in the skin. Wrinkles typically form as a result of the aging process, after considerable weight loss, or due to smoke and dehydration. Cardiovascular and ExercisingYour heart responds to exercise by increasing the number of contractions it has a minute. Your heart rate can rise between 60 to 100 beats per minute at rest, all the way up to approximately 200 beats per minute, depending on your age, gender and fitness level. By increasing how many times it beats each minute, your heart is able to supply your body with a larger amount of blood during exercise.Samples of useful exercises      ·        Briskly walking·        Jogging·        Running·        Cycling or mountain biking·        Swimming·        Exercising on a treadmill·        Exercising on an elliptical machine·        Exercising on a rowing machine·        Performing numerous types of aerobic classes·        Jumping rope·        Climbing stairs or stair climber machineMany different activities include strength training, stretching, and promote improvements on coordination and balance. In addition, all these activities will promote safe and effective weight loss. Elevating your heart rate is the main focus of all the above activities that help you to reach your target heart rate and maintain that level for at least 20-30 minutes, is confirmation that you have received an effective workout. WeightThe increased prominence of overweight and obese adults has steadily increased massively over the years in  both genders, all ages, all racial and ethnic groups, and all educational levels.Most studies show an increase in mortality rates associated with obesity. Individuals who are obese have a 10 –  50 percent increase in risk of dying from all causes in comparison to individuals with a healthy weight level. A large amount of the increased risk is due to cardiovascular diseases. Diseases associated with overweight or obesity·        Diabetes·        Coronary heart disease and stroke·        High blood cholesterol  ·        Metabolic syndrome·        Hypertension·        Certain types of cancer (breast, colorectal, endometrial and kidney)·        Sleep apnoea and other breathing problems·        Osteoarthritis·        Gallbladder disease·        Fatty liver disease·        Gout·        Pregnancy complications·        Menstrual irregularities·        Hirsutism (presence of excess body and facial hair)·        Stress incontinence (urine leakage caused by weak pelvic floor muscles)·        Psychological disorders, such as depression·        Increased surgical risk·        Increased mortality  Weight Gain and LossIndividuals that have set out a goal to lose weight should focus firstly on losing inches off their body, as opposed to actual weight being burned. This is said for this belief that muscle, by volume, is more dense than fat. Hence, a person would actually weigh more if they replaced the fat on their body with the equivalent weight of muscle.Many people that aim to achieve their weight loss goals, incorporate a specific eating program with an exercise routine .Even though this is an excellent strategy, it is likely that the individual will increase the overall muscle mass on their body. This will result in an overall lower level of weight loss. Everyone’s body is different in terms of structural frame and muscle density. Individuals that are the same height can weigh significantly different amounts. It is quite common for an individual that loses 5 to 10 pounds of weight to see a significant decrease in the number of inches measured around certain body parts such as the arms , legs , chest and stomach.A certain amount of body fat is important for the body in order to function normally and healthily. In fact, maintaining a body fat percentage that is too low can take extreme measures to a person’s health. Measuring an individual’s body fat percentage actually calculates the total body fat present on the person’s body.There are essentially just two types of body fat categories. The first type of body fat is storage fat. Storage fat consists of fat deposited just under the skin and is used as a protection layer for the bodies organs in the chest and abdomen areas. In general, storage fat for men and women is fairly similar. For instance, the average storage fat required for men is 12% of their total body weight, and 15% of their total body weight for women.The second type of body fat is called essential body fat.  In order for the whole body to function normally and healthily, a certain amount of essential body fat is required. For example, the average essential body fat required for men is 3% of their total body weight, and 12% of their total body weight for women.  Attempting to achieve a body fat percentage that is significantly lower than these values is very unhealthy but dangerous for people too. Heart Rate Experiment ActivityExperiment: Measurement of heart rate Before starting this activity, the students are informed on what procedures they are doing and will also have a practice run of the experiment before actually recording data. Procedures–      Sit on chair for 30 seconds.-      At rest, count pulses on wrist or neck for 1 minute.-      Take record of the amount of pulses you counted.-      Walk for 30 seconds.-      At rest, count pulses for 1 minute and take record of them .-      Run for 30 seconds.-      At rest, count pulses for 1 minute and take record of them.    The students will evaluate how their heart rate changed each time to accommodate how much exercise they did. Lesson TimeplanIntroduction to lesson (5 minutes)-   Defining fitness-   Informing the class on the topics that will be discussed in this lesson Topic 1: Nutrition ( 35 minutes)-   Discuss content on the different food groups.-   Allow a few minutes for questions.-   Do word matching activity at the end of the lesson for a few minutes. Topic 2: Skin (30 minutes)-   Discuss content on skin and the three layers that skin are composed of.-   Explain the different skin conditions ( their appearance, how they form, etc.) Topic 3: Exercise and Weight (30 minutes)-   Discuss content prepared on weight and list the diseases that result from obesity.-   Discuss the content on losing weight in a safe way.-   Have a discuss on the weight problems that currently are occurring around-   the world and get the students input on their opinions of the matter. –   Performing heart rate experiment outside for 20 minutes as a kinesthetic activity for the class.Conclusion ( 10 minutes)-   Briefly recap each topic but mainly the topics the students struggle to comprehend.Aims and Objectives of Lesson PlanAims:To widen students knowledge on health and fitness.For them to gain knowledge on nutrition , skin and weight.To develop students awareness of certain health risks and benefits. To influence students to exercise more frequentlyTo influence students to eat more healthy foods.Objectives:Students will be able to say one fact about each nutrition category.Students will know what vitamins belong to what soluble group.Students will learn two facts about skin and learn about 5 skin conditions. Students will be able to name 5 exercises from the list. Students will learn off 3 facts about healthy weight loss and weight gain.Teaching GuidelinesTopic of Lesson-Health and FitnessClass Level- Secondary school students.Lesson Duration- 2 hours The class is introduced with an explanation of what topics will be taught in the lesson and just a brief description of what general fitness is.Section 1- NutritionFor this section, the students will be taught about the 5 food groups; protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals and water. Before teaching the facts of the first food groups, as the class do they know any facts about protein and ask them to raise their hand if they know any facts. This allows the class to interact and get more involved in the lesson and it gets their minds working straight away. Approach each of the food groups in this way or in a similar in order for continuous involvement in the class.Activity 1- Allow students a few minutes to fill out the matching activity individually then when they are finished, let the students swap their work with each other for correcting. Activity 2- Allow the students a few minutes to fill in the blank food pyramid and then correct it verbally with the class.Section 2- SkinWith this topic the students will be taught about facts on the skin and then they will taught about common skin conditions. Involve the student by asking them what skin conditions they know about. Make sure each fact and definition is explained slowly and clearly.Section 3 – Exercise and WeightFor this sections, the students will be learning briefly about the cardiovascular system and types of exercises. Ask the students to say out exercises that they know off the top of their head to get them thinking. Reference Listhttp://www.fitnesshealth101.com/fitness/generalhttp://www.fitnesshealth101.com/fitness/skin-beauty http://www.fitnesshealth101.com/fitness/nutritionhttp://www.fitnesshealth101.com/fitness/weight-traininghttp://www.fitnesshealth101.com/fitness/weight-loss https://greatist.com/health/health-benefits-waterhttps://www.livestrong.com/article/530077-how-the-heart-lungs-work-during-exercise/http://centreurope.info/food-pyramid-template/food-pyramid-template-food-pyramid-blank-template-imgflip-free/https://www.purposegames.com/game/skin-diagram-quiz

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