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preperdeness includes?


Written plan


Practicing the plan

Evaluating the plan and modifying it

.Which are the nodal agencies responsible for
disaster management?

Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC

Cyclones : Indian Meteorological

Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological

Epidemics : Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare

Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry
of Environment,

Ministry of Agriculture and Animal

Chemical Disasters : Ministry of
Environment and Forests

Industrial Disasters : Ministry of

Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways

Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil

Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs

Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic

Mine Disasters : Department of Mines


 Instruments to measure earthquake?

. Earthquake magnitude
or amount of energy released is determined by the use of a seismograph.

The scale was developed by a
seismologist named Charles Richter (Richter Scale, Range 1-9).

Second type of
scale, the earthquake intensity scale measures the effects of an
earthquake where it occurs.


  Landslides are defined as the mass movement
of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They 
are influenced by geological, geo-morphological, climatic,
environmental, hydrological and seismological conditions and by biological

.Give the types of tectonics movement?

•      . Type of movement along the plate’s boundaries:

–     a) pulling away from each other (DIVERGENT)


Biological disaster?

. It defines the devastating effects that may be caused by an enormous spread
of a certain kind of living organism- that may be the spread off disease, a
virus, an epidemics, but also just a sudden growth of population of certain
kind of plants and animals e.g. Ebola , swine flu

What are the types of cyclone?

Polar cyclone,
Polar low, Sub-tropical, Tropical



)”The study of relationships between living
organisms and the environments in which they live is the science of Ecology.”



. The maximum number of individuals that can be
supported by a given environment .



•      A54. Natural resources are naturally occurring
substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified
(natural) form.

•      Therefore, Natural resources are the materials
required for sustenance of our life




Soil erosion is defined as the movement of soil
components, especially surface layer and top soil from one place to another



The energy harnessed from
the hot rocks present inside the earth is called geothermal energy.

thermal energy?

. The energy available due to the difference in
temperature of water at the surface of the oceans and at the deeper levels is
called Ocean Thermal Energy


What is Biomass energy?

Biomass is the organic matter generated by plants or
animals which include crop residues, cattle dung, manure, sewage, agricultural
waste etc


Renewable resources?s

Resources which can never
exhaust. Once exhausted, they can be replenished by recycling, replacement or
reproduction.E.G SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, Geothermal energy

resources are those resources which can restock (renew) themselves if they are
not over-harvested but used sustainably.

renewable resources?

A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that
exists in a fixed amount that cannot be re-made, re-grown or regenerated or
replaced after use.e.g coal ,fossil fuel


Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for
an extended period of time. In other words, climate change includes major
changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that
occur over several decades or longer

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