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Course

BEng
Hons Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering

Module

TM614
Applied Mechanics

Lead
Tutor

Geoffrey
Newcomb

Student
Name

Lal
Kima

Student
ID

1236081

Submitted
in

19
January 2018

 

List of Contents

 

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….

1.0 Materials Testing (Destructive) …………………………………………………….

1.1 Tensile Test
………………………………………………………………………

1.2 Bend Test
…………………………………………………………………………

1.3 Hardness Test
……………………………………………………………………

2.0 Materials Testing (Non-Destructive) ……………………………………………….

2.1 Visual Test
………………………………………………………………………..

2.2 Eddy current Test
………………………………………………………………..

2.3 Ultrasonic Test
……………………………………………………………………

3.0 Proposal/Discussion …………………………………………………………………

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………

Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………..

References ………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

 

Good websites:

https://www.inspecta.com/en/Our-Services/Testing/Destructive-Testing/

http://www.instron.co.uk/en-gb/our-company/library/test-types/tensile-test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This report covers both practical and research aspects of
material test methods. Material testing is imperative for

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The paper is based on both of destructive and
non-destructive material testing. The metal testing is vitally imperative for
ensuring its strength and ductility. For the tensile test the materials of the
specimen can be different, however the test procedure will be the same.

 

 

 

 

1.0  Material Testing (Destructive)

 

1.1  Tensile Test

A website (Laboratory Testing Inc., 2017) explains that the
tensile test is a destructive test method that provides information about its
strength, yield strength and its ductility of the material. Tensile testing is
imperative for ensuring a safe, high quality material and avoiding the major
liabilities associated with providing non-compliant products (ADMET, 2017). Tensile
test is one of the most fundamental types of material test which can be
performed on materials such as plastics, metals, composites, paper, rubbers,
elastomers, fabrics, films, adhesives, etc. The test is simple, relatively cheap,
and fully standardized. The tensile test is a must for ensuring the specimen
not to be loosed before the test is applied. Otherwise the test result can be
different or cannot produce the right answer. The test sample is securely held
by top and bottom grips attached to the tensile or universal testing machine
(Laboratory Testing Inc. 2017). This is proved by the test where it had been
carried out in the Newcastle Aviation Academy. During the tension test, the
grips are moved apart at a constant rate to stretch the specimen. The force on
the specimen and its displacement is continuously monitored and plotted on a
stress-strain curve until failure.

The above diagram shows the test result of the Ultimate
Tensile Strength

 

Tensile testing results can be included stiffness, maximum
load, and deflection of maximum load, work at maximum load, load of break, work
at break, stress, strain, Young Modulus, and chord slope.

Advantages

Disadvantages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2
Bend Test

“The bend test is often used as a measure of the ductility
of a material.” (Philip and Bolton, 2002) This test is a simple and inexpensive
test that can be used to evaluate both soundness and ductility of a material. The
bend test, also known as bending test, is used for the materials such as
ceramics or glass, wood or plastic, and concrete or stone. The test can be
carried out on the shop floor, needing no expensive test equipment and test
specimens are easily prepared (TWI, 2018). This bending test may be guided or
free formed. The bend test method can be various such as mandrel test, bending
on a vee block, bending on a block of soft material and the angle of bend.
According to the author of Materials for engineering (Bolton, 2000, p. 44)
other methods can also be used, e.g. bending round a mandrel, free bending and
pressure bending. The author has been further discussed that the angle of bend
can be withstood without breaking or cracking.

The mandrel form of test is the simplest method test. This
test is suitable for medium and thin thickness sheet for angles of bend up to
120° while the medium thickness sheet with bend angles up to 90° is suitable
for bending on a vee block.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Ease of
the specimen preparation and testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2  Hardness Test

The hardness test is defined as the ability of a material to
withstand scratching abrasion or indentation by another hard body. It is an indication
of the wear resistance of the material Timings, 1998.

Five major hardness scales
are used in hardness testing such as Brinell-HB, Rockwell-HR, Knoop-HK, Vickers-HV
and Leeb hardness test. The Brinell test is the oldest hardness test method but
still in common use today, determining the hardness of castings and forgings. The
Brinell hardness test uses a carbide ball indenter and methods are defined by ASTM
E10 and 9SO 6506 standards.

Rockwell hardness test is
one the destructive testing of the hardness test. The Rockwell hardness test is
inexpensive, fast and no requirement of a highly skilled operator as the machine
has provided the added advantage.  

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

ü 
Taking heavy loads for testing

ü 
Consisting of several short

ü 
It’s easy to perform

ü 
Overlapping scales

ü 
Big materials can be tested

ü 
Only surfaces can be tested

ü 
One indenter is used for all types of metals

ü 
Taking time for experiment

ü 
It’s quick to test 1-30 sec

 

ü 
Inexpensive

 

 

 

 

2.0  Material Testing (Non-Destructive)

 

2.1  Visual Test

Visual Test is the most common test Non-Destructive Testing
(NDT) techniques.

 

 

2.2  Eddy Current Test

 

 

 

2.3  Ultrasonic Test

 

 

 

3.0 Proposal/Discussion

 

Conclusion

 

Appendices

 

 

References

 

ADMET (2017). Why
Tensile Testing is Imperative for Metals Manufacturers Internet.
Available at:
Accessed: 16 January 2018.

 

Bolton, W (2000). Materials for Engineering. 2nd
ed. Oxford: Newnes.

 

Philip, M; Bolton, W (2002). Technology of Engineering Materials. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

 

Timings, R.L 1998. Engineering Materials. 2nd ed.
London; Longman.

 

Laboratory Testing Inc. (2017). Tensile Testing Specimens, Fasteners, Tubing, Rebar, Welds &
Castings Internet. Available at:
Accessed: 16 January 2018.

 

TWI (2018). Bending
Testing Job Knowledge 73 Internet. Available at:
Accessed: 16 January 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post Author: admin