Site Loader

CHAPTER#1

INTRODUCATION

The idea of parent
involvement (PI) is not a new concept; the role of parental involvement in
children’s education has become a central issue in educational policy and
research. While student success largely relies
on factors like study habits, school attendance, test taking abilities and
more, research is showing that parental involvement also has a large impact on
student achievement in the classroom.

In fact,
according to the Academic Development Institute, parents who get concerned with
their child’s education be likely to demonstrate good parenting involvement
skills, volunteer their time in the school, communicate with faculty and take
an active role in school related decision making. Therefore
parental involvement is considered a key factor in the academic achievement of
students.

Epstein’s (1990, 1995) suggested
that classification of parental involvement includes six categories: (1) basic
parenting, (2) facilitating learning at home, (3) communicating with the
school, (4) volunteering at the school, (5) participating in school decision
making, and (6) collaborating with the community.  

                Lee & Bowen (2006)
elaborated that most educators recognize parental involvement in school
activities have positive and direct influence on student academic performance. Different Research shows that students do much better
in school when their parents are actively involved in their education. Parental
effort is consistently associated with higher levels of achievement, and the
degree of the effect of parental effort is significant. Teachers and parents
alike are seeing success with blended learning approaches that can be
integrated both in and out of the classroom.

Altschul (2012) described
parental involvement also might arbitrate the relationship between
socioeconomic status (SES) and academic performance. Lee & Bowen (2006)
opined that Research also has demonstrated that a positive relationship exists
between at home parental involvement and a range of school related outcomes,
including academic achievement, school engagement, and socio emotional
adjustment.

Nyarko (2010) explained
parental involvement includes encouragement of children to succeed, monitoring
of homework, and attending field trips. Kleine, (2010) stated that Most
empirical studies on parental involvement find that parents’ engagement in
their children’s education varies by socio demographic factors (e.g., marital
status and educational level) and economic circumstances.

Jeynes (2007) stated
parental involvement at home and in school is linked positively to a variety of
academic outcomes. Nyarko (2010) expressed that Distinguishing between
involvement at home and in school can be instructive for at least two reasons.
First, some studies that differentiate between home and school based parental
involvements find contradictory effects. Namely, home based involvement has
significant positive effects, while school based involvement has significant
negative effects related to academic outcomes.

Kienhuis et al. (2010)
mentioned that at a minimum, parental involvement appears to differ based on
the context for example at home vs.   in
school. Parents play a crucial role in both the home and school environments. Henderson
& Mapp (2002) illustrated that parental involvement is associated with
children’s higher achievements in language and mathematics, enrolment in more
challenging programs, greater academic persistence, better behavior, better
social skills and adaptation to school, better attendance and lower dropout
rates.

Green et
al. (2007) illustrated that  the parental
involvement are limited to school related activities, such as helping children
with homework, discussing children’s experiences at school, communication with
the school and participation in school based activities. Johnson & Davies (2007) advocated that there is a greater chance for academic achievement when
parents are empowered with knowledge to promote effective change in the school
and their child.

Hong & Ho (2005)
explained continued effort of parental involvement throughout the child’s
education can improve academic achievement. Nyarko (2011) dexplaned parental
involvement in which in school parental involvement includes communication with
teachers about school progress and school visits. Verschueren
(2011) highlighted that Academic
achievement is the degree to which a learner, instructor or
organization has achieved their short or long term educational goals.

Parents play a vital role
in both the home and school environment. One of the most important aspects of this study is
to find out some specific components of parental involvement to see which
effects influenced student achievement. The parents as well as home can serve as advocates for the school. They
can volunteer to help out with school activities or work in the classroom, or
they can take an active role in the dominance and decision making necessary for
planning, developing, and providing an education for the community’s children.

Therefore the researcher
intends to conduct research on the
effects of parent’s involvement on student’s academic achievement at elementary
level at district sheikhupura.

STATMENTS
OF THE PROBLEM:

The Study focused on the effects of the parent’s involvement on
student’s academic achievement at elementary level of district Sheikhupura.

SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY:

Parents are their
children’s first teachers. Parent involvement in children’s education has been
proclaiming for years as being very important predictor of academic
achievement. This involvement can make a variation in a child’s
academic achievement. parents who get involved with their child’s education tend to demonstrate good parenting skills, volunteer
their time in the school, communicate with faculty and take an active role in
school related decision making.

·        
This study may be helpful for parents that
they can better support their child, and build a healthy and productive
relationship with the school and their child’s teacher.

·        
This study may be beneficial for teachers that
they will gain best practices to encourage partnership with parents.  

·        
This study may be helpful for students
that they will be able to collaborate with the schools and the home.

·        
This study may be beneficial for school
administration that they will be able to identify
specific strategies that will impact parental involvement and enhance academic
achievement.

OBJECTIVE
OF THE STUDY:

The following was being
the objective of this study:

1.      To
find out the effects of parents involvement on the student’s academic achievement
at elementary level of District Sheikhupura.

RESEARCH
QUESTIONS:

The following was the research questions of the study:

1)     
Does parent
involvement have any effect on student achievement?

2)     
How
parental involvements effect their child’s Academic achievements?

3)      What
is the correlation between parent’s involvements and academic achievements?

4)      Which
aspect of parental involvement has the greatest impact on academic achievement?

1.
METHODOLOGY:

1.1 NATURE OF
RESEARCH:

The
research was descriptive in nature.

1.2. RESEARCH DESIGN:

This
was survey study. 

1.3. POPULATION:

The
data was collected from all public and private school teachers (male and
female) and all students (male and female) at District Sheikhupura.

1.4. SAMPLE:

1.4.1.
SAMPLE SIZE:

Total
representative sample was consist of 300 Students (male and female) and 150
Teachers (male and female) at elementary level from both governments and
private schools at District Sheikhupura

1.4.2.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

Random
sampling technique was used to select students.

1.4.3.
NATURE OF PARTICIPANT:

The
male and female teachers and male and female students of public and private
schools at elementary level at District Sheikhupura were the participants of
the study.

2.
INSTRUMENTS:

Questionnaire
was developed for teacher and students as a tool of research.

DATA
COLLECTION:

The
data of the study was collected personally.

DATA
ANALYSIS:

After
collection of data, it was analyzed by using statistical techniques.

                                             

                                                
Chapter# II

Literature
Review

Outline:

2.1Theoratical Background

1.1.1       
Epstein’s model. Epstein (1995)

1.1.2       
Nyarko, K. (2011). Parental school
involvement

1.1.3       
Lee, J. S., & Bowen, N. (2006). Parent
involvement

2.1The Concept of Parents involvements and its effects

2.2.1       
 basic
parenting

2.2.2       
 facilitating
learning at home

2.2.3       
 communicating
with the school

2.2.4       
volunteering at the school

2.2.5       
participating in school decision making

2.2.6       
collaborating with the community

2.3 Parents involvements and its effects on academic
achievement of students

      2.3.1 Basic
parenting and its effects on academic achievement of students

      2.3.2 Facilitating
learning at home and its effects on academic achievement of students.

      2.3.3 Communicating
with the school and its effect on academic achievement of students

     2.3.4   
Volunteering at the school and its effects on academic achievements of
students

     2.3.5   Participating in school decision making and
its effects on academic achievements     

     2.3.6 Collaborating
with the community and its effects on academic achievements

 

                                                         
CHAPTER#III

Method
& Procedure

Nature
of the research

The present study was designed to examine the Effects of Parents Involvement on Students
Academic Achievement at Elementary Level of District Sheikhupura. This
chapter presents the methodological procedure adopted for the present research.
The present research was descriptive in nature & the design was consensus
survey.

Participant
of the Study

                The study comprised all 150 teachers
(male and female) and 150 students (male and female) from all public and
private school at District Sheikhupura. As Gay (2012) indicates, if it is at
all possible to obtain more participants, you should do so. Through consensus
survey entire data of all 150 teachers and 150 students of public and private
schools (75males & 75 female) of district Sheikhupura was taken in research
study.

All Public
schools of Lahore City

Sr No.                                                Public Teachers                                                               
Total

1                                                        Males teachers                                                                    40
2                                                        Females Teachers                                                                35 
                                                              
Total                                                       
                          75

 

Sr
No.                                              
Private Teachers                                                                
Total

1                                                       
Males teachers                                                                      35
2                                                       
Females teachers                                                                 
40
                                                               
Total                                                                                  
75

 

Sr
No.                                                  
Public students                                                                  Total

1                                                            
Girls students                                                                     
40
2                                                           
 Boys students                                                                    
35
                                                                  
Total                                                                                 
75

 

Sr
No.                                                    Private
Schools                                                                 
Total

1                                                               
Girls students                                                                   35
2                                                               
Boys students                                                                  
40
                                                                       
Total                                                                                75

 

Tools
of Research

           Present
research focused on the
Effects of Parents Involvement on Students Academic Achievement at Elementary
Level of District Sheikhupura for
that Purpose, data were collected with the help of questionnaire based on a
five point Likert scale.

Development of Research Instrument

After
an extensive literature review, a questionnaire comprised of 55 items was
developed by the researcher. Five items were excluded after discussion with the
supervisor. Five items were deleted based on the opinion of expert
administrators. The instrument then consisted of 45 items. The instrument was
then tried on 3 students & 6 teachers at elementary level: five items were
excluded due to language difficulties. After that, the instrument was consisted
of 40 items. This instrument was pilot tested on 14 students & 18 teachers
public and private schools of district Sheikhupura. Pilot testing is used to
find out the deficiencies & omissions (Gay, 2009). The application of SPSS
excluded three items: therefor, instrument consisting of 37 items was
finalized. Cronbach Alpha is the most popular measure to assess the reliability
of the instrument, it was applied & the Alpha reliability of the instrument
was determined as 0.96.

Data Collection

Before
the admonishing the five-point scale, prior permission was obtained from higher
authority that was Director of all public and private schools at Sheikhupura.
He provided permission letter for visiting the related schools. While
administering five-point scale to the students and teachers at secondary level,
ethical principles were also kept in mind, the heads were explained the purpose
of research & they were assured that the data will be kept confidential
& not be used for any other purpose than this study. They were further
assured that their responses will not be disclosed to anyone. The instrument
was administered to thestudents and teachers of schools under the supervision
of the researcher & data were collected.

Data Analysis

After
collecting the data, it was analyzed by using frequencies, percentage, T-test
& ANOVA. 

Post Author: admin