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1      
Introduction

In developing a critical
analysis of the East Scotland National Hospital (ESNH), we will perform a
simple version of the PEST process, to determine those external factors that
may have an impact on the strategies of the organisation. “The PEST analysis is
a useful tool for understanding market growth or decline, and as such the
position, potential and direction for a business. A PEST analysis is a business
measurement tool. PEST is an acronym for Political, Economic, Social and
Technological factors, which are used to assess the market for a business or
organizational unit. The PEST analysis headings helps in reviewing a situation,
and can also, like SWOT analysis be used to review a strategy or position,
direction of a company, a marketing proposition, or idea. 

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“Completing a PEST analysis is very simple, and is a good subject for workshop
sessions. PEST analysis also works well in brainstorming meetings. Use PEST
analysis for business and strategic planning, marketing planning, business and
product development and research reports.”1 (JS, n.d.) http://forhr.blogspot.com/2009/11/pest-analysis-tool.html

 

 

 

 

2      
LO
2.1 Business Factors that Underpin HR planning

For ESNH, there are no outstanding Political issues
that would affect the continued success and growth of the organisation, unless
of course there major upsets or changes in funding. Because it is a National
hospital and part of the government hospital system, while unlikely, major
political changes in health care policy and funding could in fact present a
challenge to the hospital.

From an Economic perspective, there
are definitely some considerations that will have an affect on the human
resources needed for the hospital to maintain its reputation and patient
satisfaction. The expected growth of the number of procedures carried out, by
11 percent for next year, 5 percent for the next two years, and then settling
to 2 percent for the succeeding 7 years, will mean that the hospital will need
additional staff and budget for that staff, in order to remain successful.

Expected
additional human resource availability will mean that the hospital will be able
to adapt to the changes in the Social
factors that may affect the plans of the hospital include being able to
maintain the 98 percent satisfaction record of patients.  Keeping nurses working at low absentee rates
and ensuring that the availability of bank nurses is kept at a just-in-time
position will be critical to developing or enhancing a proper HR strategy.

There seems to
be no major impact from Technological
factors, however the HR plan must ensure that the highest level of trained
nurses is available for the major surgical operations and procedures that are
expected.

 

 

Based on the
above simple analysis, the conclusion is that there are some critical needs for
the HR strategies to include a strict focus on the quality and availability of
highly trained nurses, while at the same time ensuring that the “bank” nurses
are being used at the best efficiency, and starting to phase out the use of
more expensive “agency” nurses.

 

3      
LO
2.2 Human Resource Requirements

The key
strategic initiatives of ESNH include a) Reduce patient waiting times, b) Manage
resources for the expected growth of annual procedures (22,000 last year,
24,420 next year, 25,641 the following year, 26,923 the following year, then
increasing at an average of 2 percent per year for the next seven years), c)
Phase out the use of expensive “agency” nurses, d) Creation of a new cardiac
unit, e) transferring 120 nursing staff from 3 regional hospitals to the new
unit, f) develop an internal workforce plan for nurses.

The above
initiatives are significant, and require significant human resource changes to
accomplish them.

“An effective health care WPM should
include data, strategy, planning, and evaluation (DSPE). This health care WPM
white paper outlines an a la carte method that will help organizations create a
customized model. When developing a health care WPM, organizations should focus
on the following: 1. Data – An analysis of the current health care
workforce and the needs of the future. 2. Strategy – An overarching
workforce planning approach. 3. Planning – An approach to create
pipelines to fill future workforce needs. 4. Evaluation – The ability to
monitor the effectiveness of the plan. The following assessment tool includes a
series of questions that you can answer that will help you create a customized
WPM for your organization. To create a comprehensive WPM, be sure to answer all
the questions in each of the sections”2 (Stephanie H. Drake,
2013)

The data that
we have for ESNH shows that we will need a gross growth in nursing staff of 30%
over the next 10 years.  This takes into
consideration the need to develop the new cardiac unit, as well as maintain the
quality of nursing care given to the delight of the patients.  (See Figure 1 below)

Figure 1

East Scotland National Hospital

Workforce Plan

FTE

Qualified

Assistants

Current Workforce

630

220

33

Planned Workforce Next Year *

819

244

37

Planned Workforce After Next Year

860

256

38

Planned Workforce Third Year

903

269

40

Planned Workforce Succeeding Years

921

275

41

* Considers new cardiac unit

 

 

 

4      
LO
2.3 Human Resources Plan

The needs of
the ESNH for resources for the next three (3) years can be narrowed down to
accommodating for the expected natural economic growth of the hospital in terms
of the number of procedures expected, as well as allowing for the creation of
the new cardiac unit and providing for the necessary staff for the new unit.  My plan in additional resources, as shown in
Figure 2 below, accounts for the expected growth of the number of procedures
carried out, by 11 percent for next year, 5 percent for the next two years.

Figure 2

East Scotland National Hospital

Workforce Plan (3 years)

FTE

Qualified

Assistants

Current Workforce

630

220

33

Planned Workforce Next Year *

819

244

37

Planned Workforce After Next Year

860

256

38

Planned Workforce Third Year

903

269

40

* Considers new cardiac unit

 

In order to meet the above requirements, we will
present the following plan:

a.   
Utilize “bank” nurses rather than “agency” nurses

b.   
Maintain low “sick rates” for staff by ensuring
wellness programs are followed

c.   
Recruit new cardiac specialty nurses to replace some
of the current nursing workforce

d.   
Ensure that the 120 regional hospital nurses are
successfully transferred to the new cardiac unit

 

5      
LO
2.4 How an HR Plan contributes

The successful
development and implementation of the above HR Workforce plan is critical to
the success of ESNH.  The hospital MUST
ensure that the expected growth in procedures over the next 10 years can be met
with the same quality of nursing staff that is currently providing the hospital
with a 98% patient satisfaction rate.

Additionally,
the following benefits will be seen in the successful implementation of the
above Workforce plan for Human Resources.

“Compensation

HR compensation specialists develop
realistic compensation structures that set company wages competitive with other
businesses in the area, in the same industry or companies competing for
employees with similar skills. They conduct extensive wage and salary surveys
to maintain compensation costs in line with the organization’s current financial
status and projected revenue” (Odina, 1990).

“Benefits

Benefits specialists can reduce the
company’s costs associated with turnover, attrition and hiring replacement
workers. They are important to the organization because they have the skills
and expertise necessary to negotiate group benefit packages for employees,
within the organization’s budget and consistent with economic conditions. They
also are familiar with employee benefits most likely to attract and retain
workers. This can reduce the company’s costs associated with turnover,
attrition and hiring replacement workers” (Odina, 1990).

“Safety

Employers have an obligation to
provide safe working conditions. Workplace safety and risk management
specialists from the HR area manage compliance with U.S. Occupational Safety
and Health Administration regulations through maintaining accurate work logs
and records, and developing programs that reduce the number of workplace
injuries and fatalities. Workplace safety specialists also engage employees in
promoting awareness and safe handling of dangerous equipment and hazardous
chemicals” (Odina, 1990).

Liability

“HR employee relations specialists
minimize the organization’s exposure and liability related to allegations of
unfair employment practices. They identify, investigate and resolve workplace
issues that, left unattended, could spiral out of control and embroil the
organization in legal matters pertaining to federal and state
anti-discrimination and harassment laws” (Odina, 1990).

Training and Development

“HR training and development
specialists coordinate new employee orientation, an essential step in forging a
strong employer-employee relationship. The training and development area of HR
also provides training that supports the company’s fair employment practices
and employee development to prepare aspiring leaders for supervisory and
management roles” (Odina, 1990).

Employee Satisfaction

“Employee relations specialists in HR
help the organization achieve high performance, morale and satisfaction levels
throughout the workforce, by creating ways to strengthen the employer-employee
relationship. They administer employee opinion surveys, conduct focus groups
and seek employee input regarding job satisfaction and ways the employer can
sustain good working relationships” (Odina, 1990).

Recruitment

“HR recruiters manage the employment
process from screening resumes to scheduling interviews to processing new
employees. Typically, they determine the most effective methods for recruiting
applicants, including assessing which applicant tracking systems are best
suited for the organization’s needs” (Odina, 1990).

Selection

“HR professionals work closely with
hiring managers to effect good hiring decisions, according to the
organization’s workforce needs. They provide guidance to managers who aren’t
familiar with HR or standard hiring processes to ensure that the company extends
offers to suitable candidates” (Odina, 1990).

Compliance

“HR workers ensure that the
organization complies with federal state employment laws. They complete
paperwork necessary for documenting that the company’s employees are eligible
to work …… They also monitor compliance with applicable laws for
organizations that receive federal or state government contracts, through
maintaining applicant flow logs, written affirmative action plans and disparate
impact analyses”3 (Odina,
1990).
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/10-reasons-hr-important-organization-22424.html

 

6      
LO
3.1 Purpose of Human Resource Management

“Essentially, the
purpose of HRM is to maximize the productivity of an organization by optimizing
the effectiveness of its employees. This mandate is unlikely to change in any
fundamental way, despite the ever-increasing pace of change in the business
world”4 (inc.com, n.d.).

“Until fairly
recently, an organization’s human resources department was often consigned to
lower rungs of the corporate hierarchy, despite the fact that its mandate is to
replenish and nourish what is often cited as an organization’s greatest
resource, it’s work force. But in recent years recognition of the importance of
human resources management to a company’s overall health has grown
dramatically. This recognition of the importance of HRM extends to small
businesses, for while they do not generally have the same volume of human
resources requirements as do larger organizations, they too face personnel
management issues that can have a decisive impact on business health” (inc.com, n.d.). As Irving Burstiner
commented in The Small Business Handbook, “Hiring the right people-;and training them well-;can
often mean the difference between scratching out the barest of livelihoods and
steady business growth’5
(Burstiner, 1988).

 

 

Personnel problems do
not discriminate between small and big business. You find them in all
businesses, regardless of size.”6 (inc.com, n.d.) https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/human-resource-management.html

 

For ESNH, the purpose of Human
Resource Management, as defined in the quotes above, is to ensure that the
quality of service that is currently enjoyed is maintained, and that the
hospital can assuredly maintain its strong leadership position in the region.

7       LO 3.2 Impact of Regulatory
Requirements on HR policies

There do not appear to be many
regulatory requirements that will impact the ESNH, with the exception that the
national regulatory entity (Audit Scotland) has issued national rules on
building additional time into nursing staff requirements to cover annual leave,
sickness absence, study leave, maternity leave and protected time.

The regulatory guidelines have noted
that these additional (cumulative) requirements for “off-time” should be a
minimum of 21 percent, to ensure that the impact on existing staff is not too
great, and to avoid the use of overtime and temporary staff.

The implementation of this
requirement will require a consideration of additional staff to cover for the
minimum 21 percent “off-time”, and can be seen in the Figure 3 below.  While it is an estimate of additional staff
require to ensure that the regulatory requirements are met with additional
staff, it does show that there is a significant impact on the cost of the ESNH
for meeting this requirement.

 

Figure 3

East Scotland National Hospital

Workforce Plan (3 years)

FTE

Qualified

Assistants

Current Workforce

630

220

33

Planned Workforce Next Year *

819

244

37

Planned Workforce After Next Year

860

256

38

Planned Workforce Third Year

903

269

40

Impact of Regulatory Leave

1093

326

49

* Considers new cardiac unit

 

The overall 3-year impact on costs
in additional minimum nursing staff required to meet the scheduling of the
minimum leave requirements is an additional 10 percent staff.  This may seem significant, and in fact is a
human resources requirement that adds cost and scheduling impact to the
hospital, but it does ensure that the hospital, while meeting regulatory
requirements, is also ensuring the well-being of the nursing staff, ensuring
the continued high quality of service for the nursing procedures, and ensures
the overall continued patient satisfaction.

“Human resources management must comply with all
employment, health and safety and other relevant legislation applicable to the
jurisdiction where the organization operates. This includes federal, state and
local laws that pertain to various areas of HR such as recruitment, benefits,
labor relations and termination. Keeping up-to-date with legislation ensures
that the organization remains compliant and avoids costly penalties”.7 (inc.com, n.d.) http://smallbusiness.chron.com/legal-regulatory-requirements-human-resource-process-20590.html

 

“Increasing globalization
has seen large organizations doing business internationally or setting up
operations overseas. Ensuring legal and regulatory compliance can be very
challenging in a foreign environment where laws and business practices may be
different. Companies must take note of local laws impacting not only how their
business is run, but also how their employees are managed. This includes
management of employees on travel or international assignments and employees
hired locally.”8
(Burstiner, 1988)http://smallbusiness.chron.com/legal-regulatory-requirements-human-resource-process-20590.html

 

 

2,432 words

References

Armstrong, M. (1999). A Handbook of Human Resource
Management Practice. Retrieved from INC:
https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/human-resource-management.html

Burstiner, I. (1988). The Small Business Handbook.
Prentiss Hall.

inc.com.
(n.d.). Retrieved from INC:
https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/human-resource-management.html

JS, B. S.-S. (n.d.). bLOGsPOT. Retrieved from
Human Resources: http://forhr.blogspot.com/2009/11/pest-analysis-tool.html

Mahew, R. (n.d.). Retrieved from Small Business Chronicle:
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/10-reasons-hr-important-organization-22424.html

Odina, R. (1990). Small Business Chronicle.
Retrieved from
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/legal-regulatory-requirements-human-resource-process-20590.html

Stephanie H. Drake, M. S. (2013, Sep). American
Hospital Association. Retrieved from AHA.org:
http://www.aha.org/content/13/13wpmwhitepaperfinal.pdf

1 http://forhr.blogspot.com/2009/11/pest-analysis-tool.html

2 http://www.aha.org/content/13/13wpmwhitepaperfinal.pdf

3 http://smallbusiness.chron.com/10-reasons-hr-important-organization-22424.html

4 https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/human-resource-management.html

5
Burtstiner, Irving

6 https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/human-resource-management.html

7 http://smallbusiness.chron.com/legal-regulatory-requirements-human-resource-process-20590.html

8 http://smallbusiness.chron.com/legal-regulatory-requirements-human-resource-process-20590.html

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